Iodine • Halogen
Primary XPS region: I3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy I3d5/2|
|Metal iodides||~619 eV|
- Iodine/iodide-containing compounds may seriously contaminate vacuum chamber due to volatility.
Interpretation of XPS spectra
- I3d region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δ=11.5eV).
About this element
Date of discovery: 1811
Name origin: Greek iôdes
Discoverer: Bernard Courtois
Obtained from: sodium and potassium compounds
Melting point: 113.5 K
Boiling point: 184 K
Molar volume: 25.72 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,18,7
Electron configuration: [Kr]4d105s25p5
Oxidation state: ±1,5,7
Crystal structure: orthorhombic
Iodine is a purple-black solid that sublimes at standard temperatures into purple-pink gas with an irritating odor. This element is essential in daily human consumption and is necessary in the production of the thyroid hormone. Table salt is often enriched with iodine to ensure daily levels are met, hence the name iodized salt. Lack of this element in babies and small children can cause mental retardation, and in adults, mental slowing. Iodine is an important material in several applications, including pharmaceuticals, antiseptics, and medicine.
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