Cerium • Lanthanide Rare Earth
Primary XPS region: Ce3d
Overlapping regions: Ba MNN
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Ce3d5/2|
|Ce(IV) oxide ||~882 eV|
|Ce(III) oxide||~880 eV|
- Collecting the entire Ce3d region makes data interpretation as straightforward as possible.
- Ce3d region has well separated spin-orbit components (Δ=18.6eV).
- Each spin-orbit component is further split by multiplet splitting.
- For example, the Ce3d spectrum from a pure CeO2 sample will have six visible components, even though there is only one chemical state.
- The most straightforward method for assigning Ce(III) versus Ce(IV) is to compare the complete Ce3d envelope with reference data (see below).
- Ce(III) and Ce(IV) spectra have different multiplet splitting.
- Ce(IV) has peak at 917eV, which is absent in Ce(III) spectrum.
- Common oxidation states : Ce(III) and Ce(IV).
Date of discovery: 1803
Name origin: Ceres
Discoverer: W. von Hisinger
Obtained from: monazite, orthite
Melting point: 1068 K
Boiling point: 3633 K
Molar volume: 20.69 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,19,9,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f15d16s2
Oxidation state: 3,4
Crystal structure: hexagonal
Cerium, named after the dwarf planet Ceres, is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is likely to ignite when scratched with a knife, and can ignite spontaneously in air at 65°C to 80°C. Its flames are toxic. Water should not be used to put out cerium fires, as its reaction with water produces hydrogen gas. Although known as a rare earth metal, cerium is not rare at all. Available in large quantities, cerium is even more abundant than lead. This element is widely used in making aluminum and heat-resistant alloys.
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