Samarium • Lanthanide Rare Earth
Primary XPS region: Sm3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A
- Readily changes valency.
Date of discovery: 1879
Name origin: Samarskite
Discoverer: Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Obtained from: kernite
Melting point: 1345 K
Boiling point: 2173 K
Molar volume: 19.98 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,24,8,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]6s24f6
Oxidation state: 3
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
In 1853, a Swiss chemist by the name of J. C. Galissard de Marignac spectroscopically discovered samarium in the material dydimia. Very similar to praseodymium, samarium is one of the rare elements used to make carbon arc lights for use in the motion picture industry. Comprising about 1% of Misch metal, the element is also used to make flints for lighters. When combined with cobalt, the elements produce a powerful, permanent magnet with a high resistance to demagnetization. Samarium oxide is added to glass to sensitize the phosphors in infrared radiation and acts as a catalyst for the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol. While samarium has no known biological role, it is purported to stimulate metabolism.
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