Phosphorus • Non-Metals
Primary XPS region: P2p
Overlapping regions: Zn3s, Si2p plasmon
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy P2p|
|Metal phosphide||~128.5 eV|
|Metal phosphate||~133 eV|
- P2p peak has closely-spaced spin-orbit components (Δ=0.87eV).
- Effect of spin-orbit splitting can be observed for phosphorus elements and compounds.
- Apparent resolution of spin-orbit components varies between compounds, e.g., P2p3/2 and P2p1/2 components are clearly visible for some phosphides, but for phosphates, an asymmetric peak envelope from overlapping components is observed.
- When zinc is present, be careful not to misinterpret Zn3s peak as phosphorus chemical state.
- Some phosphides (InP, GaP) are used in III-V semiconductor devices.
- Many glass materials contain P, as phosphate.
Date of discovery: 1669
Name origin: Greek phôs and phoros
Discoverer: Hennig Brand
Obtained from: phosphate rock
Melting point: 317 K
Boiling point: 550 K
Molar volume: 17.02 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,5
Electron configuration: [Ne]3s23p3
Oxidation state: ±3,4,5
Crystal structure: triclinic
Phosphorus was discovered by H. Brand in 1669 by heating concentrated urine, producing a snow-white substance that illuminated in the dark. Named from the Greek origin "phosphoros", meaning light-bearing, this element is an essential component of living systems and is important in agricultural and industrial applications. Phosphorus exists in several allotropic forms: white, red, and black, each of which is employed in a variety of applications including fertilizers, detergents, and steel production. Pure phosphorus is colorless and transparent, but ordinarily exists as a waxy, white solid. Phosphorus does not exist in the environment in its pure form, and is most often found as phosphates.
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