Indium • Other Metal

Primary XPS region: In3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy In3d5/2
In metal443.8 eV
In2O3444.0 eV

 

Experimental information
  • Smaller binding energy shifts of some indium compounds compared to indium metal.
    • Chemical state differentiation can be difficult with XPS only.
    • Collect principal In MNN peak as well as In3d.
    • Bigger chemical shifts observed for In MNN compared to In3d.
  • See trace In if used as powder mounting foil.

 

Interpretation of XPS spectra
  • In3d region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δmetal=7.6eV).
    • Peaks have asymmetric peak shape for metal.
    • Loss features are observed to higher binding energy side of 3d3/2 spin-orbit component for In metal.
  • In3d peaks may also show asymmetry for indium oxide, if other compounds are present (e.g. hydroxide) or there are vacancies/defects in the oxide lattice.
  • Small or negligible binding energy shifts for compounds, such as oxides.
    • In3d peaks broaden with respect to metal peaks for compounds.
    • Subtle shifts in CIGS samples.
    • Use X-ray induced In MNN Auger peaks to aid chemical state assignment.

 

Element Indium XPS spectra
element_indium

About this element
Element Crystal tet

Symbol: In
Date of discovery: 1863
Name origin: Indigo spectrum
Appearance: silverish
Discoverer: Ferdinand Reich
Obtained from: zinc refining

Melting point: 430 K
Boiling point: 2345 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7310
Molar volume: 15.76 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 49
Neutrons: 66
Shell structure: 2,8,18,18,3
Electron configuration: [Kr]4d105s25p1
Oxidation state: 3
Crystal structure: tetragonal

Most elements were discovered while scientists searched for other materials, and indium is no exception. This very soft, silvery-white metal has a bright luster and emits a high-pitched “cry” when bent. One of the first major applications for indium was as a coating for bearings on high-performance aircraft during World War II. Later, tin-doped indium oxide, transparent and colorless in thin films, became a main component in liquid crystal, flat panel and plasma displays. Not surprisingly the demand for indium has risen dramatically, and lower-cost alternatives, such as carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers, are being studied.

 


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