Tin • Other Metal
Primary XPS region: Sn3d
Overlapping regions: Na KLL
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Sn3d5/2|
|Sn metal||485.2 eV|
Oxides charge referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV.
- Collect XPS valence band spectrum to distinguish between SnO and SnO2.
- Sn3d region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δmetal=8.4eV).
- Peaks have asymmetric peak shape for metal.
- Loss features are observed to higher binding energy side of 3d3/2 spin-orbit component for Sn metal.
- SnO and SnO2 have similar binding energies.
- Use XPS valence band spectrum to distinguish between these oxides.
Date of discovery: ancient times
Name origin: Latin stannum
Obtained from: ore cassiterite
Melting point: 505.05 K
Boiling point: 2875 K
Molar volume: 16.29 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,18,4
Electron configuration: [Kr]4d105s25p2
Oxidation state: 4,2
Crystal structure: tetragonal
According to archaeological evidence, it is believed that people have been using tin for at least 5500 years, making it one of the earliest known metals. Comprising a small fraction of the earth’s crust, only about .001%, tin is obtained and extracted from the mineral cassiterite. There are two allotropes or forms of tin that occur at room temperature; one of them being gray (alpha) tin and the other white (beta) tin. Grey tin has few cases, while white tin is widely-used in coating beverage cans and in foils to inhibit rust. A large percentage of the world’s tin is extracted from placer deposits, with at least one-half of the world’s supply of tin coming from Southeast Asia.
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