Mercury • Transition Metal
Primary XPS region: Hg4f
Overlapping regions: Si2p, La4d
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Hg4f7/2|
|As received cinnabar (HgS)||100.3 eV|
- Hg4f region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δ=4.0eV).
Date of discovery: ancient times
Name origin: The planet, Mercury. Symbol (Hg) origin is Latin hydrargyrum, meaning "liquid silver"
Obtained from: cinnabar ore
Melting point: 234.32 K
Boiling point: 629.88 K
Molar volume: 14.09 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,32,18,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f145d106s2
Oxidation state: 2,1
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
Mercury is one of the three elements that are liquid at room temperature. Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, and other laboratory equipment; however, because its vapor, compounds, and salts are toxic, most thermometers use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury. Mercury is still used in medical thermometers to ensure better accuracy. Mercury has been found in Egyptian tombs from 1500 B.C.. Mercury nitrate was used to remove the fur from animal skins to make hats. The constant exposure of the hatters to mercury nitrate caused many cases of brain damage which is the origin of the saying “as mad as a hatter”. This led to the creation of the Mad Hatter in Alice in Wonderland.
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