Niobium • Transition Metal
Primary XPS region: Nb3d
Overlapping regions: Cl2p
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Nb3d5/2|
|Nb metal||202.4 eV|
Nb2O5 charge is referenced to C1s at 284.8eV.
Interpretation of XPS spectra
- Nb metal gives asymmetric Nb3d peak shapes, but Nb oxides have symmetric peak shapes.
- Nb3d region has significantly split spin-orbit components (Δ=2.78eV).
- For Nb oxides, the FWHM of the Nb3d peaks is the same; for Nb metal, the Nb3d3/2 peak is much broader than the Nb3d5/2 peak.
About this element
Date of discovery: 1801
Name origin: Greek Niobe
Appearance: gray metallic
Discoverer: Charles Hatchett
Obtained from: columbite
Melting point: 2750 K
Boiling point: 5017 K
Molar volume: 10.83 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,12,1
Electron configuration: [Kr]4d45s1
Oxidation state: 5,3
Crystal structure: cubic body centered
Normally shiny gray, niobium develops a bluish tinge when exposed to air at room temperature. This color makes niobium attractive for use in body piercing jewelry. Niobium is chemically very close to tantalum. Niobium is a compound in some stainless steels and is an alloy of other nonferrous metals, such as those used in pipeline construction. This element is a Type II superconductor, which means that it remains a superconductor even in high magnetic fields. Niobium gets its name from the mortal Niobe of Greek mythology who turned to stone after she wept for the loss of her children and husband.
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