Osmium • Transition Metal
Primary XPS region: Os4f
Overlapping regions: Zr4s, Fe3p, Ir3p, Li1s, Pt5p3
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Os4f7/2|
|Os metal||52 eV|
- Os4d peaks overlap with C1s region, necessitating careful peak fitting.
Date of discovery: 1803
Name origin: Greek osmë
Discoverer: Smithson Tenant
Obtained from: platinum ores
Melting point: 3306 K
Boiling point: 5285 K
Molar volume: 8.42 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,32,14,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f145d66s2
Oxidation state: 3,4
Crystal structure: hexagonal
Discovered by S. Tenant in 1803 from the residue of crude platinum, this lustrous, blue-white metallic element is extremely hard and brittle, even at high temperatures. The densest of all elements, osmium has the highest melting point and lowest vapor pressure of the platinum group. While the metal form is often difficult to isolate, osmium powder can be sintered at high temperatures. This powder gives off a highly toxic, strong-smelling tetraoxide, giving osmium its Greek origin namesake "osme", meaning odor.
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