Scandium • Transition Metal
Primary XPS region: Sc2p
Overlapping regions: Ta4p3/2, Cd3d5/2, N1s, Ge LMM, Se LMM
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Sc2p3/2|
|Sc metal||398.5 eV|
ScO(OH) referenced to Sc2p metal peak. Sc2O3 referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV.
Interpretation of XPS spectra
- Sc2p peak has significantly split spin-orbit components (Δmetal=4.90eV).
- Splitting Δ-value varies with chemical state. (e.g., Δoxide=4.3eV for Sc2O3).
- For many elements, the FWHM for each spin-orbit component is the same, but for scandium, the Sc2p1/2 component is broader than the Sc2p3/2 peak.
- Spectrum below has been assigned according to Ref .
About this element
Date of discovery: 1878
Name origin: Latin Scandia
Discoverer: Lars Nilson
Obtained from: thortveitite, wiikite
Melting point: 1814 K
Boiling point: 3103 K
Molar volume: 15.00 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,9,2
Electron configuration: [Ar]3d14s2
Oxidation state: 3
Crystal structure: hexagonal
A rare transition element, scandium was discovered in 1878 by L. Nilson in Scandinavia. It occurs in only trace amounts on earth, though it is much more abundant in the sun and other stars. Although scandium can develop a slightly yellow or pink tinge upon exposure to air, it exists in its standard state as a soft, silvery white metal. Scandium’s high melting point and lightweight characteristics make it of interest to the aerospace industry and designers of sports equipment. Current applications of scandium include use in bicycle frames and in the production of high intensity light when combined with oxygen.
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