The cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carries a net negative charge. Thus, it presents an impenetrable barrier to large molecules that, like the phosphate backbones of DNA and RNA, are also negatively charged. To sneak nucleic acids through the cell membrane, researchers have developed a number of techniques each using a different approach—from using chemicals and carrier molecules that coat the nucleic acids to neutralize them to physical methods that create transient pores in the membrane to introduce the DNA directly into the cell.
Gene delivery technologies
Transfection technologies available today can be broadly classified into three groups: chemical, biological, and physical. No one method can be applied to all cells and all experiments. The ideal approach should be selected depending your cell type and experimental needs, should have high transfection efficiency, low cell toxicity, and minimal effects on normal physiology, and be easy to use and reproducible (Kim and Eberwine, 2010).
Biological methods that rely on genetically engineered viruses to transfer non-viral genes into cells (also known as transduction) and include:
|Cationic lipid mediated delivery|
|Calcium phosphate co-precipitation|
|Delivery by other cationic polymers(e.g., polybrene, PEI, dendrimers)|
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.