Pathway Focus: Cancer
- FDA-cleared use for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications facilitates progression to clinical application/IND filing
- Superior T cell expansion with lower levels of serum than normally required
- Maintains phenotype and function (e.g., cytokine secretion profile) of polyclonally activated and cultured T cells similar to those observed with conventional serum-supplemented medium
Gibco® OpTmizer™ CTS™ T-Cell Expansion Medium is a serum-free, xeno-free complete 1X medium developed for more rapid growth and expansion of human T lymphocytes. Comprising OpTmizer™ T-Cell Expansion Basal Medium and OpTmizer™ T-Cell Expansion Supplement, this medium is specially formulated for superior cell growth and viability, high-density cell culture suitable for bioreactors, and consistent results. Backed by cGMP traceability and documentation including Certificate of Analysis, Certificate of Origin, MSDS, and access to our device master files, OpTmizer™ CTS™ T-Cell Expansion Medium facilitates review of regulatory submissions and promotes an easier transition from research to clinical applications.
The OpTmizer™ CTS™ T-Cell Expansion Tissue Culture Medium is intended for human ex vivo (outside the body) tissue and cell culture, making it ideal for the efficient growth of large volumes of therapeutic T cells, which have demonstrated promise for the treatment of debilitating diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and autoimmune disorders.
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|Figure 1. Growth of T cells in various media (with or without serum). Serum-free OpTmizer™ medium is competitive with other media containing up to 5% human serum, and adding only 2% human serum can further boost its performance.|
For Research Use or Manufacturing of Cell, Gene, or Tissue-Based Products. CAUTION: Not intended for direct administration into humans or animals.
- Convenient—kit that includes all components necessary to perform endothelial tube formation assay
- Easy—step-by-step protocol
- Robust—reagents optimized for angiogenesis applications
The Angiogenesis Starter Kit contains media and reagents optimized for culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Geltrex® Reduced Growth Factor Basement Membrane Matrix to model the formation of endothelial cell tube networks. A detailed, easy-to-follow protocol is available to guide you through each step.
One of the most widely used in vitro assays to model the reorganization stage of angiogenesis is the tube formation assay. This assay is typically employed to determine the ability of various compounds to promote or inhibit tube formation. Compounds that are able to inhibit tube formation could be useful in various diseases such as cancer, where tumors stimulate new blood vessel formation to receive oxygen and nutrients in order to grow beyond a relatively small size.
The Angiogenesis Starter Kit is a complete primary cell solution that enables scientists to investigate these angiogenic processes in a simple and optimized model. The advantages of this kit are that it is easy to set up, it requires a short culture period, it is quantifiable, and it is amenable to high-throughput analysis.
Molecular Probes® dyes that work well for angiogenesis applications include calcein AM, calcein blue AM, and CellTrace™ calcein red-orange, and detection technologies such as QTracker® reagents. These reagents provide a simple and effective method for introducing fluorescent intracellular labels within living cells.
- Learn more about the Angiogenesis Starter Kit
- Learn more about Molecular Probes® products for angiogenesis
Figure 2. Endothelial tube formation assays using the Angiogenesis Starter Kit. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured in Medium 200 basal medium supplemented with Large Vessel Endothelial Supplement (LVES), and were seeded onto a Geltrex™ matrix thin gel. Tube formation after 18 hours is shown (same field in both panels).
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
- Easy-to-run assays—4 hours of incubation time
- Convenient precoated, removable 8-well strips
- Quantitative, sensitive results
The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates the transcription of many target genes, including cell cycle cyclin D2 and CDK2 and translation initiation factors eIF2 and eIF4. The transcription activity of c-Myc involves complexes of several proteins. The protein MAX binds to the helix-loop-helix leucine zipper region of c-Myc. This dimerization with MAX triggers the binding of c-Myc-MAX to the DNA E-box sequence. Subsequently, c-Myc recruits histone acetyltransferase and other members of the chromatin remodeling complex. The amino-terminal domain plays an important role in the recruitment of the chromatin remodeling complex; one of the highly conserved regions in this domain binds with transformation/transcription domain-associated protein, a component of the remodeling complex. Another binding partner for the MAX protein is MAD. The MAX-MAD heterodimer binds to c-Myc’s target genes and represses the expression of these genes through the activity of histone deacetylases.
Elevated c-Myc expression is found in many cancer types. Interactions between c-Myc, MAX, and MAD are critical in the control of cellular functions. When these interactions become unbalanced, such as by the increased expression of c-Myc, tumors can develop.
The Human c-Myc (Total) ELISA Kit is designed to detect and quantify the level of c-Myc protein in human cell lysates, independent of its phosphorylation state. The assay procedure and quantitative results can be quickly achieved within a day in a 96-well plate format. Convenient strip-well plates also provide flexibility to run as few samples as needed without wasting material.
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|Figure 3. Specificity. To determine the specificity of this ELISA kit, cell extracts of the same concentration, from different Jurkat preparations, were analyzed.|
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
- Observe the process of phagocytosis using green- and red-fluorescent particles
- Available as conjugates of E. coli, S. aureus, and Zymosan
- Upon phagocytosis, low intracellular pH induces fluorescence signal
Our proprietary pH-sensitive Molecular Probes® pHrodo™ conjugates of E. coli, S. aureus, and Zymosan particles are designed to be specific sensors of phagocytosis. In addition to the red-fluorescent version, we now offer a green-fluorescent version, observable with the same filters as those used for Alexa Fluor® 488 dye.
During the process of phagocytosis, ingested particles fuse with acidic lysosomes in the cell’s interior to form phagolysosomes. pHrodo™ dye, conjugated to the surface of the Bioparticles® reagents, changes from nonfluorescent to fluorescent with this reduction in pH, making these particles ideal reagents for the study of phagocytosis and its regulation by drugs and/or environmental factors. And because pHrodo™ dye is minimally fluorescent at neutral pH, the need for wash steps and quencher dyes in the assay is dramatically reduced.
Researchers are investigating ways to improve the targeting and efficiency of phagocytes as potential cancer therapies. Bioparticles® pHrodo™ conjugates could assist in the investigation of drugs and chemicals that enhance the phagocytotic function in the cells.
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Figure 4. Phagocytosis in MMM cells using pHrodo™ Green E. coli BioParticles® Conjugate. MMM macrophage cells were plated in complete medium and cultured overnight. Cells were then rinsed once with Live Cell Imaging Solution, and the working solution of Live Cell Imaging Solution plus pHrodo™ Green E. coli BioParticles® Conjugate at 1 mg/mL was added to the cells. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 90 min to allow phagocytosis to proceed.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. © 2012 Life Technologies Corporation. All rights reserved. The trademarks mentioned herein are the property of Life Technologies Corporation and/or its affiliate(s) or their respective owners.
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