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Pathway Focus: The Role of Inflammation in Oncology
- ABfinity™ HIF-1 alpha rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibodies for sensitive detection
- Consistent antibody performance for your assays
- Consistent product from lot to lot
ABfinity™ recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibodies are produced from specific recombinant clones, so antibody performance is consistent over time. ABfinity™ antibodies are available for many targets, including HIF-1 alpha.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 (gene ID 3091) is a transcription factor complex made up of an alpha and a beta subunit. In hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 alpha returns to the nucleus and binds with HIF-1 beta to regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In certain cancers, this activity can lead to tumor progression, which makes HIF-1 alpha a potential target for treatments. ABfinity™ recombinant monoclonal antibodies are ideal reagents for signaling pathway research. The ABfinity™ technology helps ensure consistent antibody performance so you don’t have to reoptimize your assay with each new lot.
- Learn more about ABfinity™ Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies
- Use the Primary Antibody Search Tool
|Figure 1. Western blot analysis with HIF1-alpha ABfinity™ Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody. Whole cell extract (30 µg per lane) from HEK was loaded on an SDS-PAGE gel, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose. The blot was blocked, then incubated with HIF1-alpha ABfinity™ Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody at 0.1 µg/mL for 2 hr. Goat anti–rabbit HRP conjugate was used at 1:5,000 dilution as secondary antibody and developed by a chemiluminescence (ECL) method. Expected size is ~93 kDa.|
- Treated to avoid excessive accumulation in the liver
- Extremely bright and photostable signal
- Injectable and validated for in vivo applications
Microspheres developed specifically for small animal in vivo imaging (SAIVI™ microspheres) are of a defined size, are bright, and retain fluorescence for extended periods of time. The SAIVI™ injectable microspheres are specifically treated to avoid accumulation in the liver, making them particularly suitable for in vivo research. Following IV introduction, the microspheres accumulate and are retained at sites of inflammation.
When inflammation occurs, chemicals from white blood cells are typically released into the injured tissue as part of the process the body employs to remove pathogens or damaged cells. In some cases the inflammatory chemicals released can cause damage to the body’s tissues, resulting in pain, redness, and swelling. Tracking recruitment to the site and imaging the effects of localized inflammation are critical to assess pathogenicity and to characterize the link between chronic inflammation and cancer.
These microspheres are useful for monitoring blood flow in addition to aiding in the visualization of sites of inflammation. The utility of the microspheres has been demonstrated in an inflammation/wound-healing model (see figure).
- Learn moreabout SAIVI Reagents
|Figure 2. Imaging of microspheres in an inflammation/wound-healing model. Inflamed joints in the paw of an arthritic mouse labeled with SAIVI™ Injectable Contrast Agent (0.1 µm microspheres). Image obtained using the CRi Maestro imaging system.|
Gibco® Recombinant PDGF products offer:
- High biological activity
- High purity
- Proven compatibility with Gibco® media
Gibco® Recombinant Proteins are highly purified bioactive proteins. Gibco® Growth Factors, Cytokines, and Chemokines have been bioassayed with Gibco® media. Get your recombinant proteins from the media company you use and trust.
Several growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines have been implicated in cancer development. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was originally isolated as an “anti-cancer” cytokine. The interleukins Il-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL18 have also been linked with tumorigenesis. Additionally, chemokines like SDF-1α and 6Ckine are thought to play a role in determining metastatic destinations of tumor cells. Finally, TNF-α, cytokines, and chemokines are regulated by NF-kB. All of this evidence indicates a strong connection between inflammation and oncology.
Understanding inflammatory pathways is critical for oncology studies and cancer research. Our Gibco® growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines are high-purity proteins with high bioactivity. To ensure Gibco® growth factors are of the highest quality, each protein is analyzed for purity, along with structural homogeneity, to ensure a biologically active protein is produced.
Learn more about Gibco® Cytokines and Growth Factors
|Figure 3. Growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines involved in cancer development.|
- Red-fluorescent indicator of ROS can be fixed using formaldehyde
- Compatible with green dyes and GFP, facilitating multiplex assays
- Validated with multiple platforms, including traditional imaging, high-content screening, plate readers, and flow cytometry
CellROX™ Deep Red reagent is a novel fluorogenic probe to measure oxidative stress in cells. The cell-permeant dye is non-fluorescent while in a reduced state that exhibits bright fluorescence upon oxidation by reactive oxygen species with emission maxima ~665 nm that is measurable by fluorescent imaging, high content imaging, fluorescent plate readers, or flow cytometry.
There is growing evidence that chronic inflammation plays a role at all stages of tumorigenesis, including DNA damage, limitless replication, apoptosis evasion, sustained angiogenesis, self-sufficiency in growth signaling, insensitivity to anti-growth signaling, and tissue invasion/metastasis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) seems to play a central role in the signaling pathway that leads to tumorigenesis (Kamp et al., Oncology (2011) 25:400).
CellROX™ Deep Red reagent exhibits a bright, deep-red fluorescence signal (Ex/Em ~644/665 nm) that is compatible with other live cell dyes and with GFP, making it useful in multiplex fluorescence assays to measure a variety of cellular phenomena. Furthermore unlike many other ROS sensors (i.e., H2DCFDA), the signal from CellROX™ Deep Red is retained after formaldehyde fixation, giving you assay and workflow flexibility.
Learn more about CellROX™ Deep Red reagent
|Figure 4. Imaging oxidative stress with CellROX™ Deep Red reagent. Human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells were treated with 100 μM menadione for 1 hr to induce oxidative stress, and then stained with 5 μM CellROX™ Deep Red reagent, 5 μg/mL of CellMask™ Orange plasma membrane stain, and 1 μM SYTO® Green fluorescent nuclear stain for 30 min at 37°C. The cells were washed 3 times with HBSS before imaging.|
- Reliable—get quantitative results with validated kits
- Convenient—ready-to-use kits that come with standards and strip-well plates
- Fast—assay protocol in half a day
TNFα, IFN-y, IL-6, TGFβ, IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) are cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins that play important roles in inflammation. Systemic chronic inflammation is characterized by an increase in the concentration of some of these markers and is correlated with certain diseases. For instance, CRP has recently been associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in some reports.
Recent research studies have linked inflammatory cytokines with cancer progression, but the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Inappropriate activation of inflammatory responses is suggested to play a role in the tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, and therefore may be important targets for drug development.
In research studies, the ELISA kits allow for accurate measurement of circulating inflammatory markers in the blood or in cell culture models. It is the gold-standard method that provides reliable quantitative results in only half a day.
Learn more about ELISA Kits
|Figure 5. ELISA protocol.|