There are four key steps that endothelial cells take to achieve new blood vessel formation:

  •     Degradation of surrounding matrix
  •     Migration towards the angiogenic stimulus
  •     Proliferation to provide the additional cells for the new vessels
  •     Reorganization to form the three-dimensional vessel structures

Numerous assays are used to study these functions in the presence of either angiogenic or antiangiogenic stimuli.
 
In the links below, we describe some of the more common in vitro and in vivo assays that are currently used in the field.  Within each assay link, we have included any available protocols, necessary materials, troubleshooting guides, Life Technologies products, and helpful references.