ADAR catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3). Site-specific RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alters their functional activities.
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Protein Aliases: 136 kDa double-stranded RNA-binding protein; adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-A; adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific; Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase; DRADA; dsRNA adenosine deaminase; dsRNA adeonosine deaminase; IFI-4; interferon-induced protein 4; Interferon-inducible protein 4; K88DSRBP; p136
Gene Aliases: ADAR; ADAR1; AGS6; DRADA; DSH; DSRAD; G1P1; IFI-4; IFI4; K88DSRBP; P136
UniProt ID: (Human) P55265
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 103