Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are members of the 7-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily that bind the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. Pharmacological, structural, and molecular cloning data indicate significant heterogeneity within this receptor family. Nine receptor subtypes have been identified thus far including three alpha-1 AR subtypes (1A/D, 1B, and 1C), three alpha-2 ARs (2A, 2B, and 2C), and three beta AR subtypes (1, 2, and 3). ARs participate in either the onset or maintenance of several disease states including hypertension, cardiac dysfunction (congestive heart failure, ischemia, arrhythmias), diabetes, glaucoma, depression, and impotence. BARs participate in diverse processes including development, behavior, cardiac function, smooth muscle tone, and metabolism. In gene-knockout experiments, the majority of mice that lack the B1AR gene die prenatally and those that do survive until adulthood display abnormal cardiac function. Other studies have shown that the direct regulation of cardiac B1AR density by thyroid hormones occurs at the transcriptional level and is modulated by the catecholamine sensitive-adenylyl cyclase system. Evidence for the effects of cAMP on B1AR regulation has come from a study of members of the cAMP response element (CRE) modulator (CREM) family of transcription factors in transformed cell lines.
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Protein Aliases: adrenergic receptor, beta 1; adrenergic, beta-1-, receptor; beta 1-adrenergic receptor beta 1-AR; beta 1-AR; Beta-1 adrenergic receptor; Beta-1 adrenoceptor; Beta-1 adrenoreceptor; cardiac beta adrenergic receptor
Gene Aliases: Adrb-1; ADRB1; ADRB1R; B1AR; beta-AR; BETA1AR; RATB1AR; RHR