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The E. coli AlkB protein protects against the cytotoxicity of methylating agents by repair of the specific DNA lesions generated in single-stranded DNA; ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 are mammalian homologs of AlkB that catalyze the removal of 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine, modifications that left unchecked could lead to cancerous cells. Mutations in both ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 have been observed in pediatric brain tumors indicating that these proteins are important in the prevention of cancer formation. Like the histone demethylase JMJD1A, ALKBH2 is a non-heme iron enzyme that is inhibited by Nickel ions, suggesting that inhibition of ALKBH2 by Nickel ions may play a role in the development of cancer. Conversely, ALKBH2 mRNA and protein levels are increased glioma cells following Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy, an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment, suggesting that down-regulating ALKBH2 expression in cancer cells may enhance the anti-cancer effectiveness of this treatment.
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Protein Aliases: 2OG-Fe(II) oxy DC1; alkB homolog 2, alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase; alkB, alkylation repair homolog 2; Alkylated DNA repair protein alkB homolog 2; Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2; DNA oxidative demethylase ALKBH2; Oxy DC1
Gene Aliases: ABH2; ALKBH2
UniProt ID: (Human) Q6NS38
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 121642
Molecular Function: oxygenase