Immunofluorescence analysis of ATG9A was performed using 70% confluent log phase HepG2 cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 1% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with ATG9A Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (PA116993) at 2ug/ml in 0.1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Superclonal™ Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate (A27034) at a dilution of 1:2000 for 45 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant with DAPI (S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor® 555 Rhodamine Phalloidin (Product # R415, 1:300). Panel d represents the merged image showing cytoplasmic localization. Panel e shows the no primary antibody control. The images were captured at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Bovine, Chicken, Human, Mouse, Non-human primate, Rat|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 750-839 of human ATG9A.|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 30% glycerol|
|Contains||0.1% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||3-5 µg/10^6 cells|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||2 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||2 µg/ml|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||1:100-1:250|
|Western Blot (WB)||1-3 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
Survival of environmental stress conditions requires the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. To preserve this balance, cells utilize a degradative mechanism known as autophagy. During this process, in response to starvation or other stresses, bulk cytoplasm is non-specifically sequestered within double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the lysosome/vacuole for subsequent degradation and recycling. Atg9 is the only integral membrane protein required for autophagosome formation and considered a membrane carrier in autophagy-related pathways.
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