Bad is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin are found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Bad is phosphorylated on one or more of Ser-75, Ser-99, Ser-118 and Ser-134 in response to survival stimuli, which blocks its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-99 or Ser-75 promotes heterodimerization with 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction then facilitates the phosphorylation at Ser-118, a site within the BH3 motif, leading to the release of Bcl-X(L) and the promotion of cell survival. Ser-99 is the major site of AKT/PKB phosphorylation, Ser-118 the major site of protein kinase A (CAPK) phosphorylation.
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Protein Aliases: BAD; Bcl-2-binding component 6; Bcl-2-like protein 8; BCL-X/BCL-2 binding protein; Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter; Bcl2 antagonist of cell death; BCL2-antagonist of cell death protein; BCL2-associated agonist of cell death; BCL2-binding component 6; BCL2-binding protein; Bcl2-L-8
Gene Aliases: BAD; BBC2; BBC6; BCL2L8
UniProt ID: (Human) Q92934
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 572