Retinoic acid-inducible gene I, RIG-I is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) involved in the recognition of viral dsRNA. Along with MDA5, RIG-I detects viral dsRNA and activates the innate immune response. Both MDA5 and RIG-I are RNA helicases and they perform overlapping as well as distinct roles. RIG-I is activated by dsRNAs without a 5'-triphosphate end and short dsRNAs, whereas MDA5 is activated by long dsRNAs. Once activated, both proteins signal through IPS-1 activating transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF-3 (1) and ultimately activating apoptosis, cytokine signaling, and inflammation. RIG-I is essential for signaling by influenza A, influenza B, human respiratory syncytial virus (3), paromyxoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. MicroRNA-146a has been implicated in feedback inhibition of RIG-I-dependant antiviral response by negatively regulating RIG-I targets TRAF6, IRAK1, and IRAK2. Recent evidence has implicated RIG-I in the detection of cytosolic DNA through RNA polymerase III activity.
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Protein Aliases: DDX58; DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58; DEAD box protein 58; DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide; Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX58; Retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein; Retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein; RIG 1; RIG I; RIG-1; RIG-I; RIG-I-like receptor 1; RLR-1; RNA helicase RIG-I
Gene Aliases: DDX58; RIG-I; RIGI; RLR-1; SGMRT2
UniProt ID: (Human) O95786
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 23586