L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian central nervous systems. To maintain glutamate levels below excitoxic levels, excess glutamate at excitatory synaptic clefts is removed by ion-coupled glutamate transporters. Four glutamate transporters have been identified: the sodium-dependent GLAST-1, GLT-1, EAAC-1 and the chloride-dependent EAAT-4. EAAC-1 is expressed in the CNS and also found in kidney and small intestine. Structural features of glutamate transporters are believed to include eight membrane-spanning alpha-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary transporters but may resemble loop-pores found in ion channels. A second distinctive structural feature is the presence of a highly amphipathic membrane-spanning helix that provides a hydrophilic path through the membrane. Mice with homozygous deletions of the EAAC-1 transporter gene develop dicarboxylic aminoaciduria and display reduced spontaneous locomotor activity although no neurodegeneration was observed over a period of 12 months.
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Protein Aliases: excitatory amino acid carrier 1; excitatory amino acid carrier 2; Excitatory amino acid transporter 3; excitatory amino acid transporter-3; Excitatory amino-acid carrier 1; glutamate transporter mEAAC2; Neuronal and epithelial glutamate transporter; Sodium-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter 3; solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), member 1; Solute carrier family 1 A1 (brain glutamate transporter); Solute carrier family 1 member 1; solute carrier family 1, member 1
Gene Aliases: D130048G10Rik; DCBXA; EAAC1; EAAC2; EAAT3; MEAAC1; REAAC1; SCZD18; SLC1A1