EGF (Epidermal growth factor) exerts its actions by binding to the EGF Receptor, a 170 kDa protein kinase. Activation of EGFR initiates diverse cellular pathways in response to toxic environmental stimuli, or to EGF binding to the receptor, the EGFR forms homo- or heterodimers with other family members. Each dimeric receptor complex initiates a distinct signaling pathway by recruiting different Src homology 2 (SH2) containing effector proteins. EGF is far and wide expressed in kidney, cerebrum, prostrate and salivary glands. EGF acts as a potent mitogenic factor and the phosphorylated receptor recruits adapter proteins like GRB2 that activates complex downstream signaling cascades. EGF activates at least 4 major downstream signaling cascades including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, PLCgamma-PKC and STAT modules. Research studies suggest the protein may also play important role in activating the NF-kappa-B signaling cascade. Defects in the EGGF gene are the cause of hypomagnesemia type 4 and dysregulation has been associated with the growth and progression of certain cancers.
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Protein Aliases: beta-urogastrone; EGF; Epidermal growth factor; H-EGF; Pro-epidermal growth factor; Urogastrone
Gene Aliases: EGF; HOMG4; URG
UniProt ID: (Human) P01133
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 1950
Molecular Function: transmembrane signal receptor