Estrogen Receptor beta (ER beta, NR3A2) protein is approximately 55kD, though multiple isoforms ranging from 36-59kD have been described. Human ER beta was initially cloned and characterized from testis. Estrogen Receptors (ER) are members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. The estrogen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that when bound to estrogen hormone, induces a conformational change that allows dimerization and binding to estrogen response elements (ERE) in DNA. When bound to EREs, ER can positively or negatively regulate gene transcription through the recruitment of coactivator or corepressor proteins. There are two different forms of the estrogen receptor, alpha and beta, encoded by separate genes (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively). Estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of estrogen receptor alpha. Some ER beta isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of estrogen receptor alpha in reproductive tissues. ER beta is found widely in many tissues throughout the body and can act as a potent tumor suppressor, playing a crucial role in many cancer types such as prostate cancer, autism spectrum disorder, medullary thyroid carcinoma, De Quervain Disease and risk of cardiovascular disease.
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Protein Aliases: ER beta; ER-beta; estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta); Estrogen receptor beta; estrogen receptor beta 4; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 2; oestrogen receptor beta
Gene Aliases: ER-BETA; ER[b]; Erb; ERbeta; ESR-BETA; ESR2; ESRB; ESTRB; NR3A2