Description: This CB9 monoclonal antibody reacts with human Granzyme A. Granzyme A is the most abundantly expressed of the granzyme serine proteases, which are proteins released from the granules of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes that induce death in target cells by cleavage of intracellular substrates. They play a critical role in immune defense against viruses, tumors, and intracellular bacteria. Granzyme A activates caspase-independent cell death pathways morphologically similar to apoptosis and characterized by mitochondrial and DNA damage. It may also play a role in inflammation, as the precursor form of IL-1 beta (pro-IL-1 beta) is among its target substrates. Granzyme A shares overlapping substrate specificity with the closely-related Granzyme K, which is believed to account for the minimal decrease in cytotoxicity of Granzyme A-deficient CTL.
Applications Reported: This CB9 antibody has been reported for use in intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis.
Applications Tested: This CB9 antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis of stimulated normal human peripheral blood cells using the Intracellular Fixation and Permeabilization Buffer Set (cat. 88-8824) and protocol. Please refer to Best Protocols: Protocol A: Two step protocol for (cytoplasmic) intracellular proteins located under the Resources Tab online. This can be used at 5 µL (0.06 µg) per test. A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test.
eFluor® 660 is a replacement for Alexa Fluor® 647. eFluor® 660 emits at 659 nm and is excited with the red laser (633 nm). Please make sure that your instrument is capable of detecting this fluorochome.
Excitation: 633-647 nm; Emission: 668 nm; Laser: Red Laser.
Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered.
Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein described here is a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease that may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: CTL tryptase; Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte proteinase 1; Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase-3; Fragmentin-1; granzyme 1; Granzyme A; Granzyme A (Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase-3; Hanukah factor serine protease); granzyme A (granzyme 1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 3); Granzyme-1; H factor; Hanukah factor serine protease); Hanukkah factor; HF
Gene Aliases: CTLA3; GZMA; HFSP
UniProt ID: (Human) P12544
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 3001
Molecular Function: annexin calcium-binding protein calmodulin enzyme modulator hydrolase intracellular calcium-sensing protein peptide hormone protease protease inhibitor receptor serine protease signaling molecule