NFS1 (nitrogen fixation 1), also known as NIFS or IscS (cysteine desulfurase), is a member of the class V pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. It localizes to the cytoplasm or mitochondrion depending on which form is generated based on cytosolic pH. Highest expression levels of NFS1 are found in heart and skeletal muscle. Lower levels of expression are also found in liver, brain and pancreas. NFS1 is responsible for catalyzing the removal of sulfur from cysteine to form alanine, thereby supplying the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Fe-S clusters function as essential cofactors in a wide variety of events, including facilitation of electron transfer processes in oxidative phosphorylation, catalysis of enzymatic reactions in aconitase and dehydratases and maintenance of structural integrity in the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease III.
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Protein Aliases: Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial; NFS1 nitrogen fixation 1 homolog; nitrogen fixation 1 (S. cerevisiae, homolog); nitrogen-fixing bacteria S-like protein
Gene Aliases: HUSSY-08; IscS; NFS1; NIFS
UniProt ID: (Human) Q9Y697
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 9054
Molecular Function: lyase