PA1-991 detects PKR in human and mouse samples.
PA1-991 has been successfully used in Western blot and ICC/IF procedures. In Western blot analysis of HeLa cell cytosol this antibody detects a ~66 kDa protein representing PKR.
The PA1-991 immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues K(358) T K C L F I Q M E F C D K G(372) of human PKR.
PKR is a 68 kDa protein and an IFN-induced serine/threonine protein kinase consisting of two N-terminal RNA-binding regulatory domains and a functional C-terminal serine/threonine protein kinase domain. Activated by dsRNA produced during viral infections, PKR plays a key role in IFN induced-innate antiviral response, virus-induced apoptosis, cell growth & differentiation. Upon activation, PKR gets autophosphorylated and catalyzes the phosphorylation of elF2 alpha subunit, which leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis. PKR induces apoptosis by up-regulating Fas expression and mediates FADD/Caspase-8 death signaling pathway. Upon viral infection, it functions as a dual protein, sequentially activating both cell survival & cell death pathways using kinase independent and dependent strategies. PRKR regulates multiple pathways which include NF-kappaB activation, p53, p38, & PDGF signaling pathway. PKR has been implicated in tumor suppression & malignancy. To evade the antiviral effects of PKR, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms, such as the inhibition of PKR by the non-structural protein (NS1) of the influenza virus. More recently, PKR has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Huntington, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Protein Aliases: double stranded RNA activated protein kinase; dsRNA-activated kinase; EC 126.96.36.199; eIF-2 alpha; eIF-2A protein kinase 2; eIF2a Kinase; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 2; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2; IFN- type I-induced and dsRNA-activated kinase; IFN-induced and double-stranded RNA-activated kinase; Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase; interferon-inducible elF2alpha kinase; Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase; MGC126524; OTTHUMP00000201320; P1/eIF-2A protein kinase; p68 kinase; PKR; protein kinase R; Protein kinase RNA-activated; protein kinase, interferon inducible double stranded RNA dependent; protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent; protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 83; Serine/threonine-protein kinase TIK; T-cell viral integration site; Tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2
Gene Aliases: 2310047A08Rik; 4732414G15Rik; AI467567; AI747578; EIF2AK1; EIF2AK2; PKR; PPP1R83; PRKR; Tik
Molecular Function: non-receptor serine/threonine protein kinase