The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is the channel responsible for the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in muscle cells and also plays a role in calcium regulation in non-muscle cells. The RyR exists as a homotetramer and is predicted to have a short cytoplasmic C-terminus and 4-10 transmembrane domains; the remainder of the protein, termed the "foot" region is located in the cytoplasm between the T-tubule and the SR. The mammalian RyR is the product of three different genes: RyR-1, which is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle and areas of the brain, RyR-2, which is expressed predominantly in the heart muscle but also found in the stomach, endothelial cells and diffuse areas of the brain, and RyR-3 which is found in smooth muscle and the brain (striatum, thalamus and hippocampus).
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Protein Aliases: calcium release channel; Cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor; Cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel; cardiac-type ryanodine receptor; central core disease of muscle; islet-type ryanodine receptor; kidney-type ryanodine receptor; protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 137; Ryanodine receptor 1; ryanodine receptor 1 (skeletal); ryanodine receptor 1, skeletal muscle; ryanodine receptor 1-like, skeletal muscle; Ryanodine receptor 2; ryanodine receptor 2 (cardiac); ryanodine receptor type 2; ryanodine receptor type II; RYR-1; RYR-2; sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel; Skeletal muscle calcium release channel; Skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor; Skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor; Type 1 ryanodine receptor; type 1-like ryanodine receptor; Type 2 ryanodine receptor
Gene Aliases: 9330127I20Rik; AI528790; ARVC2; ARVD2; CCO; MHS; MHS1; PPP1R137; RYDR; RYR; RYR-1; RYR-2; RYR1; Ryr1l; RYR2; SKRR; VTSIP