TGF beta-1 (TGFB1, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1) is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines, found almost ubiquitously in tissues. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-b is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its pro-domain. Activation of TGF beta-1 requires the binding of aV integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-b binding proteins. Latent forms are complexes of TGF beta-1, an amino-terminal portion of the TGF-beta precursor, designated TGF-LAP (TGF-latency associated peptide), and a specific binding protein, known as LTBP. TGF beta-1 helps regulates proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration in many cell types. Many cells have TGF beta receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. TGF beta-1 is cleaved into a latency-associated peptide and a mature TGF beta-1 peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a TGFB1 homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGFB1-binding protein, or in an active form composed of a TGF beta-1 homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGF beta family members. The gene for TGF beta-1 is frequently upregulated in tumor cells, and mutations in this gene result in Camurati-Engelmann disease and cystic fibrosis.
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Protein Aliases: LAP; Latency-associated peptide; prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1; regulatory protein; TGF b; TGF b 1; TGF beta; tgf beta 1; TGF beta-1; TGF beta-1 protein; tgf beta1; TGF β; TGF β 1; TGF β1; TGF-B1; TGF-beta 1; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGF-beta-1; TGFβ1; Transforming growth factor; transforming growth factor b1; transforming growth factor beta; Transforming growth factor beta-1; Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein; transforming growth factor β1; transforming growth factor, beta-1; transforming growth factor-beta 1
Gene Aliases: CED; DPD1; LAP; TGF-beta1; TGFB; Tgfb-1; TGFB1; TGFbeta; TGFbeta1
Molecular Function: growth factor