PA1-039 detects mouse macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); rat, bovine, Drosophila, and porcine brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS); human, porcine and bovine epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).
PA1-039 has been successfully used in Western blot and immunohistochemistry procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~135 kDa protein representing mouse macrophage iNOS; an ~155 kDa protein representing rat, bovine and porcine bNOS; ~140 kDa protein representing porcine and bovine eNOS. Immunohistochemical staining of NOS in Drosophila optic tissue with PA1-039 results in staining of the optic nerve. In immunohistochemistry procedures PA1-039 also stains NOS in human endothelial cells, macrophages, and peripheral neural tract cells.
The PA1-039 immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues D Q(1113) K R Y H E D I F G(1122) of mouse iNOS and bNOS. This sequence is highly conserved among the different NOS isoforms.
Nitric oxide (NO) is an inorganic, gaseous free radical that carries a variety of messages between cells including vasorelaxation, neurotransmission and cytotoxicity. NOS catalyzes the oxidization of L-arginine to produce L-citrulline and NO. Two constitutive isoforms, brain/neuronal NOS (b or nNOS, type I) and endothelial cell NOS (eNOS, type III), and one inducible isoform (iNOS, type II), have been cloned. All isoforms contain calmodulin, NADPH, FAD, and FMN binding domains. iNOS is found in a variety of cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, synoviocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Cytokines such as IFNg, TNF, IL-1, IL-2, and LPS cause an increase in iNOS mRNA, protein, and activity levels. After cytokine induction, iNOS exhibits a delayed activity response which is then followed by a significant increase in NO production over a long period of time. bNOS and eNOS share ~50% homology and their enzymatic activity depends on binding to the calcium/calmodulin complex. iNOS, however, is tightly bound to calmodulin and acts independently of calcium levels. Both constitutive isoforms respond immediately to increased levels of calcium to produce low levels of NO over a short time. In vascular endothelial cells NOS appears to modulate vasotension and platelet aggregation. bNOS is found in neurons, peripheral nerve cells, macula densa, and pancreatic islet cells.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: BNOS; cNOS; Constitutive NOS; EC-NOS; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3; Endothelial NOS; eNOS; HEP-NOS; Hepatocyte NOS; inducible nitric oxide synthase; Inducible NO synthase; Inducible NOS; MAC-NOS; Macrophage NOS; N-NOS; NC-NOS; Neuronal NOS; nitric oxidase synthase; nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal); nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible; nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible, macrophage; nitric oxide synthase 2A (inducible, hepatocytes); nitric oxide synthase 3 (endothelial cell); nitric oxide synthase 3 transcript variant eNOS-delta20; nitric oxide synthase 3 transcript variant eNOS-delta20-21; nitric oxide synthase 3 transcript variant eNOS-delta21; Nitric oxide synthase, brain; Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial; Nitric oxide synthase, inducible; nitric oxide synthase, macrophage; nNOS; NOS type I; NOS type II; NOS type III; NOS, type II; NOSII; NOSIII; Peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase NOS1; Peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase NOS2; Universal Nitric Oxide Synthase
Gene Aliases: 2310005C01Rik; 2310065A03Rik; Bnos; BOS_18469; BOS_4740; cNOS; EC-NOS; ECNOS; eNOS; HEP-NOS; i-NOS; IHPS1; INOS; Inosl; N-NOS; NC-NOS; nNOS; NO; NOS; Nos-1; Nos-2; Nos-3; NOS-I; NOS-II; NOS1; NOS2; NOS2A; NOS3; NOSIII
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 4842, (Pig) 396859, (Human) 4843, (Bovine) 282876, (Bovine) 287024, (Pig) 397557, (Human) 4846, (Rat) 24598, (Mouse) 18125, (Mouse) 18126, (Rat) 24599, (Mouse) 18127, (Rat) 24600