|Tested species reactivity||Arthropod, Bovine, Fruit fly, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Rabbit, Pig, Rat, Fruit fly, Insect, Shark, Mollusc, Arthropod, Human, Mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues D Q(1113) K R Y H E D I F G(1122) of murine iNOS and bNOS.|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 1mg/ml BSA|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F))||1:100|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:1,000|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
PA1-039 detects mouse macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); rat, bovine, Drosophila, and porcine brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS); human, porcine and bovine epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).
PA1-039 has been successfully used in Western blot and immunohistochemistry procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~135 kDa protein representing mouse macrophage iNOS; an ~155 kDa protein representing rat, bovine and porcine bNOS; ~140 kDa protein representing porcine and bovine eNOS. Immunohistochemical staining of NOS in Drosophila optic tissue with PA1-039 results in staining of the optic nerve. In immunohistochemistry procedures PA1-039 also stains NOS in human endothelial cells, macrophages, and peripheral neural tract cells.
The PA1-039 immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues D Q(1113) K R Y H E D I F G(1122) of mouse iNOS and bNOS. This sequence is highly conserved among the different NOS isoforms.
Nitric oxide (NO) is an inorganic, gaseous free radical that carries a variety of messages between cells including vasorelaxation, neurotransmission and cytotoxicity. NOS catalyzes the oxidization of L-arginine to produce L-citrulline and NO. Two constitutive isoforms, brain/neuronal NOS (b or nNOS, type I) and endothelial cell NOS (eNOS, type III), and one inducible isoform (iNOS, type II), have been cloned. All isoforms contain calmodulin, NADPH, FAD, and FMN binding domains. iNOS is found in a variety of cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, synoviocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Cytokines such as IFNg, TNF, IL-1, IL-2, and LPS cause an increase in iNOS mRNA, protein, and activity levels. After cytokine induction, iNOS exhibits a delayed activity response which is then followed by a significant increase in NO production over a long period of time. bNOS and eNOS share ~50% homology and their enzymatic activity depends on binding to the calcium/calmodulin complex. iNOS, however, is tightly bound to calmodulin and acts independently of calcium levels. Both constitutive isoforms respond immediately to increased levels of calcium to produce low levels of NO over a short time. In vascular endothelial cells NOS appears to modulate vasotension and platelet aggregation. bNOS is found in neurons, peripheral nerve cells, macula densa, and pancreatic islet cells.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Reduced erythrocyte deformability associated with hypoargininemia during Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to study the role of hypoargininemia in the reduced red blood cell deformability observed in Plasmodium falciparum malaria
|Rey J,Buffet PA,Ciceron L,Milon G,Mercereau-Puijalon O,Safeukui I||Scientific reports (4:null)||2014|
Involvement of the nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in the oxytocin-mediated differentiation of porcine bone marrow stem cells into cardiomyocytes.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to study the role of the NO-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in the cardiomyocytic differentiation of porcine bone marrow stem cells mediated by oxytocin
|Ybarra N,del Castillo JR,Troncy E||Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry (24:25)||2011|
Parasitic manipulation and neuroinflammation: Evidence from the system Microphallus papillorobustus (Trematoda) - Gammarus (Crustacea).
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the brain of gammarids
|Helluy S,Thomas F||Parasites and vectors (3:null)||2010|
Nitric oxide in the crustacean brain: regulation of neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the developing olfactory pathway.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate pathways involving NO in the embryonic and adult crustacean brain and NO's corresponding roles
|Benton JL,Sandeman DC,Beltz BS||Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists (236:3047)||2007|
Nitric oxide modulates sodium taste via a cGMP-independent pathway.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to study the mechanism by which NO modulates sodium taste
|Schuppe H,Cuttle M,Newland PL||Developmental neurobiology (67:219)||2007|
Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the central complex and surrounding midbrain neuropils of the locust Schistocerca gregaria.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate the effect of NO signaling on specific brain regions of Schistocerca gregaria
|Kurylas AE,Ott SR,Schachtner J,Elphick MR,Williams L,Homberg U||The Journal of comparative neurology (484:206)||2005|
Conservation of capa peptide-induced nitric oxide signalling in Diptera.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to study the nitric oxide signalling pathway in Diptera and its conservation
|Pollock VP,McGettigan J,Cabrero P,Maudlin IM,Dow JA,Davies SA||The Journal of experimental biology (207:4135)||2004|
Immunocytochemical evidence for nitric oxide- and carbon monoxide-producing neurons in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to identify nitric oxide- and carbon monoxide-producing neurons in the stomatogastric nervous system in the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus
|Christie AE,Edwards JM,Cherny E,Clason TA,Graubard K||The Journal of comparative neurology (467:293)||2003|
Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP regulate retinal patterning in the optic lobe of Drosophila.
PA1-039 was used in immunocytochemistry to characterize the effect of nitric oxide and cyclic GMP on Drosophila retina
|Gibbs SM,Truman JW||Neuron (20:83)||1998|
Mechanical and non-mechanical functions of Dystrophin can prevent cardiac abnormalities in Drosophila.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of the mechanical and signaling functions of Dystrophin in restoring Drosophila cardiac function
|Taghli-Lamallem O,Jagla K,Chamberlain JS,Bodmer R||Experimental gerontology (49:26)||2014|
Peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to characterize the peripheral nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis
|Wyeth RC,Croll RP||The Journal of comparative neurology (519:1894)||2011|
Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: a comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to characterize nitric oxide synthase in crab and its role in molting
|McDonald AA,Chang ES,Mykles DL||Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology (158:150)||2011|
Nitric oxide in the control of luminescence from lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) photophores.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the regulatory effect of nitric oxide on photophores of lantern shark
|Claes JM,Krönström J,Holmgren S,Mallefet J||The Journal of experimental biology (213:3005)||2010|
Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the role of nitric oxide in the neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs
|Mattiello T,Fiore G,Brown ER,d'Ischia M,Palumbo A||The Journal of biological chemistry (285:24154)||2010|
Nitric oxide inhibits metamorphosis in larvae of Crepidula fornicata, the slippershell snail.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the role of nitric oxide in controlling metamorphosis in larvae of Crepidula fornicate
|Pechenik JA,Cochrane DE,Li W,West ET,Pires A,Leppo M||The Biological bulletin (213:160)||2007|
Serotonin and nitric oxide interaction in the control of bioluminescence in northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica (M. Sars).
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the influence of NO and serotonin on the control of light production in krill
|Krönström J,Dupont S,Mallefet J,Thorndyke M,Holmgren S||The Journal of experimental biology (210:3179)||2007|
Hormone complement of the Cancer productus sinus gland and pericardial organ: an anatomical and mass spectrometric investigation.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the hormonal composition in crustacean sinus gland and pericardial organ
|Fu Q,Kutz KK,Schmidt JJ,Hsu YW,Messinger DI,Cain SD,de la Iglesia HO,Christie AE,Li L||The Journal of comparative neurology (493:607)||2005|
Identification and characterization of a tachykinin-containing neuroendocrine organ in the commissural ganglion of the crab Cancer productus.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the important roles of a tachykinin-containing neuroendocrine organ in the commissural ganglion of the crab Cancer productus
|Messinger DI,Kutz KK,Le T,Verley DR,Hsu YW,Ngo CT,Cain SD,Birmingham JT,Li L,Christie AE||The Journal of experimental biology (208:3303)||2005|
Nitric oxide modulates peristaltic muscle activity associated with fluid circulation in the sea pansy Renilla koellikeri.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate NO's functional properties in the sea pansy Renilla koellikeri's peristalsis activity
|Anctil M,Poulain I,Pelletier C||The Journal of experimental biology (208:2005)||2005|
Midgut epithelial responses of different mosquito-Plasmodium combinations: the actin cone zipper repair mechanism in Aedes aegypti.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the epithelial responses of mosquitoes against different malarial pathogens.
|Gupta L,Kumar S,Han YS,Pimenta PF,Barillas-Mury C||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (102:4010)||2005|
Inducible peroxidases mediate nitration of anopheles midgut cells undergoing apoptosis in response to Plasmodium invasion.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of inducible peroxidases in the nitration of anopheles midgut cells during plasmodium-induced apoptosis.
|Kumar S,Gupta L,Han YS,Barillas-Mury C||The Journal of biological chemistry (279:53475)||2004|
Nitric oxide synthase activity and immunoreactivity in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.
PA1-039 was used in immunohistochemistry to identify and characterize nitric oxide synthase in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii
|Lee CY,Zou HS,Yau SM,Ju YR,Liau CS||Neuroreport (11:1273)||2000|
Development of nitrergic neurons in the nervous system of the locust embryo.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to investigate nitrergic neurons during the development of locust nervous system
|Stern M,Böger N,Eickhoff R,Lorbeer C,Kerssen U,Ziegler M,Martinelli GP,Holstein GR,Bicker G||The Journal of comparative neurology (518:1157)||2010|
NF-kappaB-mediated repression of iNOS expression in Leishmania amazonensis macrophage infection.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to investigate the influence of Leishmania amazonensis infection on NF-kappa B activation and iNOS expression in macrophages
|Calegari-Silva TC,Pereira RM,De-Melo LD,Saraiva EM,Soares DC,Bellio M,Lopes UG||Immunology letters (127:19)||2009|
Role of nitric oxide in the defenses of Crassostrea virginica to experimental infection with the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of nitric oxide on parasitic loads at early time points after infection
|Villamil L,Gómez-León J,Gómez-Chiarri M||Developmental and comparative immunology (31:968)||2007|
Cardioprotection during the final stage of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning is mediated by neuronal NO synthase in concert with cyclooxygenase-2.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protection in the final stage of late phase of ischemic preconditioning
|Wang Y,Kodani E,Wang J,Zhang SX,Takano H,Tang XL,Bolli R||Circulation research (95:84)||2004|
Nitric oxide inhibits the rate and strength of cardiac contractions in the lobster Homarus americanus by acting on the cardiac ganglion.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to study the role of nitric oxide in crustacean cardiac physiology.
|Mahadevan A,Lappé J,Rhyne RT,Cruz-Bermúdez ND,Marder E,Goy MF||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (24:2813)||2004|
Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-mu, an alternatively spliced isoform expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to investigate the distribution of nitric-oxide synthase mu in differentiated skeletal muscle
|Silvagno F,Xia H,Bredt DS||The Journal of biological chemistry (271:11204)||1996|
Cloned and expressed nitric oxide synthase structurally resembles cytochrome P-450 reductase.
PA1-039 was used in western blot to investigate the characteristics of nitric oxide synthase in vivo
|Bredt DS,Hwang PM,Glatt CE,Lowenstein C,Reed RR,Snyder SH||Nature (351:714)||1991|