Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca2+. Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca2+ complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis. Calmodulin is a small, highly conserved calcium binding protein found in all eukaryotic cells. With the capacity to bind up to four calcium ions, this 17 kDa protein acts as an important intracellular receptor for regulatory calcium signals. As it binds calcium, calmodulin undergoes conformational changes which can increase its affinity for target proteins. It acts both directly, through interaction with key target enzymes, and indirectly, via specific kinases. Studies have found that calmodulin participates in the regulation of several biological processes including energy and biosynthetic metabolism, cell motility, exocytosis, cytoskeletal assembly, and intracellular modulation of both cAMP and calcium concentrations. Calmodulin is the archetype of the family of calcium-modulated proteins of which nearly 20 members have been found. They are identified by their occurrence in the cytosol or on membranes facing the cytosol and by a high affinity for calcium. Calmodulin contains 149 amino acids and has 4 calcium-binding domains. Its functions include roles in growth and the cell cycle as well as in signal transduction and the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters.
calcium binding gene, DD112; Calcium-binding protein Dd112; CALM 1; Calmodulin; Calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta); calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta); calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta); calmodulin 5; Calmodulin III; Calmodulin-1; Calmodulin-2; Calmodulin-3; Calmodulin-4; calmodulin-like protein; calmodulin-like protein (neoCaM); CaM; epididymis secretory protein Li 72; LP7057 protein; Neo-calmodulin; NeoCaM; phosphorylase kinase delta; phosphorylase kinase subunit delta; phosphorylase kinase, delta subunit; prepro-calmodulin 1; prepro-calmodulin 2; prepro-calmodulin 3; skin calmodulin-related factor