Cholera toxin (sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx, or CT) is a protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. CTX is the causative agent of cholera infection. The alpha subunit contains two chains, A1 and A2, linked by a disulfide bridge. The alpha subunit activates the adenylate cyclase enzyme in cells of the intestinal mucosa leading to increased levels of intracellular cAMP. The beta subunit of cholera toxin binds to a GM1-ganglioside receptor which is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by triggering uptake and delivery of the toxin alpha subunit into cells. The holotoxin consists of a pentameric ring of beta subunits whose central pore is occupied by the alpha subunit.View more
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