HLA-DPA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DPA) and a beta (DPB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DP molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules.
DP(W3); DP(W4); HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain; HLA-SB alpha chain; MHC class II antigen; MHC class II DP3-alpha; MHC class II DPA1; MHC class II HLA-DPA1 antigen; Primed lymphocyte test-1