IDO1 is an intracellular heme-containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the indole ring of several important regulatory molecules like tryptophan, serotonin, and melatonin. By doing this, IDO1 initiates the production of biologically active metabolites, commonly referred to as kynurenines. IDO1 is widely expressed in a variety of human tissues as well as in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). In inflammation, interferons (IFNs) act on specific receptors to trigger IDO1 induction. The production of IFN-gamma and induction of IDO1 represent important antimicrobial mechanisms. Degradation and depletion of tryptophan by IDO1 inhibits the growth of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, IDO1 plays a complex and crucial role in immunoregulation during infection, pregnancy, autoimmunity, transplantation, and neoplasia.
EC 22.214.171.124; IDO-1; indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase; indole 2,3-dioxygenase; indoleamine; Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1; Indoleamine-2; Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase