Description: Recombinant TNF-alpha is produced in E. coli and is identical in structure with natural human TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha is a 52 kDa trimer composed of 17.3 kDa monomers
Tumor Necrosis Factor is a polypeptide cytokine produced by monocytes and macrophages. It functions as a multipotent modulator of immune response and further acts as a potent pyrogen. TNF-alpha circulates throughout the body responding to stimuli (infectious agents or tissue injury), activating neutrophils, altering the properties of vascular endothelial cells, regulating metabolic activities of other tissues, as well as exhibiting tumoricidal activity by inducing localized blood clotting. TNF-alpha also inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity resulting in cachexia, a physical wasting condition. Activation of B-cells by the Epstein Barr virus can be inhibited by TNF-alpha. Due to its varied actions throughout the immune system, TNF-alpha may play a role in the pathogenesis of many disease states.
TNF-alpha production is mediated by the action of lymphokines and endotoxins on the macrophage. Purified monocytes produce TNF-alpha within four hours of stimulation by recombinant IL-2 and there is some in vitro evidence to suggest that TNF-alpha is expressed at high levels and with prolonged kinetics in T cells stimulated by both CD2 and CD28. Secretion of TNF-alpha is enhanced by gamma interferon. TNF then induces or enhances the specific production of Class I MHC antigen, GM-CSF, and IL-1.
Molecular Weight: 17.3 kDa.
TNF alpha is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophage and bind to its receptors, TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. TNF alpha is involved in the regulation of immune cells, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. TNF alpha exists as a multimer of two, three, or five noncovalently linked units, but shows a single 17 kDa band following SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of TNF alpha, and has been observed to causes tumor necrosis when injected into tumor-bearing mice. Other functions of TNF-alpha include its role in the immune response to bacterial, viral, parasitic and certain fungal infections, as well as its role in the necrosis of specific tumors. TNF alpha causes cytolysis or cytostasis of certain transformed cells, being synergistic with interferon-gamma in its cytotoxicity. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer.
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Protein Aliases: APC1 protein; C-domain 1; C-domain 2; Cachectin; ICD1; ICD2; Intracellular domain 1; Intracellular domain 2; N-terminal fragment; NTF; TNF, macrophage-derived; TNF, monocyte-derived; TNF-a; TNF-alpha; Tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor ligand 1F; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form; Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Gene Aliases: DIF; TNF; TNF-alpha; TNFA; TNFSF2; TNLG1F
UniProt ID: (Human) P01375
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 7124