Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. Beta-III tubulin is primarily expressed in neurons and may be involved in neurogenesis, axon guidance and maintenance. Mutations in the beta tubulin gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3. Beta-III tubulin was also detected in Sertoli cells of the testis and transiently in non-neuronal embryonic tissues. Glutamate residues at the C-terminus of beta III tubulin can be glutamylated. The precise function of such modifications is unclear. Tubulin is phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during cell cycle progression. Ser-172 phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
Microtubules, the major cytoskeletal elements found in all eukaryotic cells, consist of Tubulin, which is a dimer of two 55 kDa subunits: alpha and Beta. Microtubules play key roles in chromosome segregation in mitosis, intracellular transport, ciliary and flagellar bending, and structural support of the cytoskeleton. Because beta-tubulin is ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells, it is frequently used as a loading control for assays involving protein detection, such as Western blotting.
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Protein Aliases: beta 5-tubulin; beta Ib tubulin; beta polypeptide; beta-4 tubulin; Beta-tubulin class-VI; c(beta)7 tubulin; tubulin; Tubulin beta 4'; Tubulin beta chain; tubulin beta polypeptide; Tubulin beta-1 chain; Tubulin beta-5 chain; Tubulin beta-6 chain; Tubulin beta-7 chain; tubulin, beta 1 class VI; tubulin, beta 1-like; tubulin, beta 2A; tubulin, beta 3; tubulin, beta 5-like; tubulin, beta class I; tubulin, beta polypeptide
Gene Aliases: 2810484G07Rik; CDCBM6; CSCSC1; M(beta)1; M40; OK/SW-cl.56; TUBB; TUBB1; TUBB2A; TUBB3; TUBB5