Vaccine Response Immunoassay Tests

Evaluate immune response to vaccination by measuring antigen-specific antibodies


What is Vaccine Response?

  • Vaccines are a means to introduce an antigen to our immune systems in order to induce a long-term protective immune response
  • The infection-like state caused by the vaccine activates our immune system to produce antigen specific antibodies and T-lymphocytes
  • Specific antibody production should include response to both protein and polysaccharide antigens1
  • The immune system recognizes protein antigens. The neonatal immune system can generate antigen-specific T and B cell responses2. This forms the basis of vaccination policies worldwide
  • Vaccination responses aid in differentiation between immune disorders by either showing a normal response to vaccines or normal response to some vaccines
  • Response to polysaccharide antigens starts developing after 2 years of age until adulthood
Understanding Immunological Disorders

What is this test?

The role of antibody responses in CVID assessment

  • CVID testing - antibody response testing is performed just before and 3-4 weeks after vaccination 
  • Vaccines that are used for antibody response assessment in CVID testing include - 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), meningococcal, isohaemagglutinins and salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Tv) 
  • Chances of false negative results are higher with PCP vaccine3,4  
  • It could mask a pure PPV driven polysaccharide response due to previous infection or vaccination 
  • Cross-reaction among antibodies towards different serotype
  • Different immunogenicities among antibodies towards different serotypes
  • Typhi Vi has been suggested as a complementary approach when interpretation of gold standard test (PCP) might be challenging 
  • Response to PCP vaccines has been recommended for the assessment of humoral immunity5
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent PID1 characterised by hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody productions


Established Assay for immunodeficiencies 

  • A unique panel of ELISA tests for assessing specific antibody responses (for protein, peptide-conjugated & pure polysaccharide vaccines) in suspected immunodeficiencies
  • Guidelines1,2 recommend specific antibody response testing should include response to both protein and polysaccharide antigens
  • Quantifies immune response to well established vaccines included in most immunization schedules (tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Hib and pneumococcal antigens)


What is Vaccine Response Impairment?

Vaccine response impairment is impairment of specific antibody responses, which may be as a consequence of PID and SID immunodeficiencies which renders individuals susceptible to recurrent, severe infections (mainly by encapsulated bacteria and rare opportunistic pathogens).

  • Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDs) from hereditary or genetic defects 
  • Secondary Immunodeficiency (SIDs) caused by environmental factors
Primary Immunodeficiency
Primary Immunodeficiency

Learn about the warning signs of primary immunodeficiencies, the different manifestations and the best diagnosis practice
Secondary Immunodeficiency
Secondary Immunodeficiency

Find out about the causes and possible manifestations of secondary immunodeficiencies, and their diagnosis
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1. Bonilla FA, Khan DA, Ballas ZK, et al. Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(5):1186-205
2. Semmes EC, Chen JL, Goswami R, Burt TD, Permar SR, Fouda GG. Understanding early-life adaptive immunity to guide interventions for pediatric health. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021 Jan 21;11:595297
3. Paris K, Sorensen RU. Assessment and clinical interpretation of polysaccharide antibody responses. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;99(5):462-464. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60572-8
4. Bossuyt X, Borgers H, Moens L, Verbinnen B, Meyts I. Age- and serotype-dependent antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharides. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(4):1079-1081.
5. Parker AR, Bradley C, Harding S, Sánchez-Ramón S, Jolles S, Kiani-Alikhan S. Measurement and interpretation of Salmonella typhi Vi IgG antibodies for the assessment of adaptive immunity. J Immunol Methods. 2018;459:1-10.