CREB (Cyclic AMP response element binding protein) is a 43 kDa basic/leucine zipper transcription factor that binds the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and activates transcription in response to a variety of extracellular signals including neurotransmitters, hormones, membrane depolarization, and growth and neurotrophic factors. Activation of CREB is dependent upon the phosphorylation of serine 133. Phosphorylation of CREB occurs via p44/42 MAP kinase and p90RSK, and via p38 MAP kinase and MSK1. Although CREB will bind DNA independent of its phosphorylation state, only the phosphorylated form is competent as a transcription factor. CREB binding protein (CBP), a transcriptional coactivator that directly interacts with CREB, binds to CREB in the region of serine 133. CREB is involved in different cellular processes including the synchronization of circadian rhythmicity, differentiation of adipose cells, and learning and memory. In humans, the gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 2. Diseases associated with CREB dysfunction include Alzheimer's Disease, histiocytoma and soft tissue melanoma.View more
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