Description: Cytochrome c was identified as a component required for the crucial steps in apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Cytochrome c was shown to redistribute from mitochondria to cytosol during apoptosis in intact cells.
Mitochrondrial cytochrome c is a water-soluble protein of 15 kDa with a net positive charge, residing loosely attached in the mitochrondrial intermembrane space. Cytochrome c functions in the respiratory chain by interaction with redox partners. The release of cytochrome c into the cytosol leads to an activation of an apoptotic program via activation of a caspase dependent pathway. Cytochrome c achieves this goal by interaction with other cytosolic factors forming a complex (apoptosome) composed of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, dATP and Apaf-3/caspase 9. Bcl-2 on the other hand was shown to be able to prevent apoptosis by blocking the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.
Applications Tested: ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting.
Cytochrome C is an electron transporting protein that resides within the intermembrane space of the mitochondria, where it plays a critical role in oxidative phosphorylation and the production of cellular ATP. Release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria to the cytosol is triggered by apoptotic stimuli. In the cytoplasm, the cytochrome C binds apoptotic protease activating factor which activates the apoptotic initiator procaspase 9. Cytosolic cytochrome C functions in the activation of caspase 3, an ICE family molecule that is a key effector of apoptosis.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: Cytochrome c; hc1
Gene Aliases: CYC; CYCS; HCS; THC4
UniProt ID: (Human) P99999
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 54205