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Antibody is stable for 24 months.
Positive Control: Human brain, stomach or thyroid. A-431 or Y79 cells. Cellular Localization: Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion.
Specificity Comments: Glutamine synthetase (GlSyn) forms a homo-octamer that serves as a catalyst for the amination of glutamic acid to form glutamine. This enzyme is a marker for astrocytes, which serve as the primary site of conversion of glutamic acid to glutamine in the brain. Induction of glutamine synthetase is seen upon astrocyte cell contact with neurons. Elevated expression of glutamine synthetase in glial cells has been shown to protect neurons from degeneration due to excess glutamate. Glutamine synthetase is also present in the liver and is involved in nitrogen homeostasis. Overexpression of glutamine synthetase has been shown in primary liver cancers, indicating a potential role for glutamine synthetase in hepatocyte transformation.
Glutamine synthase is part of the glutamine synthetase family. Ammonia incorporation in animals occurs through the actions of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthase. Glutamate plays the central role in mammalian nitrogen flow, serving as both a nitrogen donor and nitrogen acceptor. It also has an important role in controlling metabolic regulations of neurotransmitter glutamate. Because of the multiple functions and importance of GS in cellular metabolism, both catalytic activities and synthesis are highly regulated. The activity of GS is controlled by adenylylation. Its activity is decreased in the cerebral cortex of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease, particularly in the vicinity of senile plaques. It is also decreased under conditions of glucose deprivation.
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Protein Aliases: cell proliferation-inducing protein 59; GLNA; Glutamate ammonia ligase; glutamate decarboxylase; Glutamate--ammonia ligase; glutamine synthase; Glutamine synthetase; glutamine synthetase I; GS; Palmitoyltransferase GLUL; Proliferation inducing protein 43; proliferation-inducing protein 43
Gene Aliases: GLNS; GLUL; GS; PIG43; PIG59
UniProt ID: (Human) P15104
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 2752
Molecular Function: ligase