Cells were pulsed with BrdU (Cat. No. B23151) for 30 min before fixation. BrdU incorporated into the DNA of proliferating cells was detected with an anti-BrdU antibody (Cat. No. A21300) and green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 488 Goat Anti–Mouse IgG1 isotype–specific secondary antibody (Cat. No. A21121); the BrdU staining pattern is co-localized with the nuclear staining of blue-fluorescent DAPI (Cat. No. D1306, D21490). Mitochondria were labeled with anti-COX, Complex IV, subunit I, and red-fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 594 Goat Anti–Mouse IgG2a isotype-specific antibody (Cat. No. A21135). Coverslips were mounted with Prolong® antifade mounting medium (Cat. No. P7481).
|Tested species reactivity||Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||IgG gamma 1|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 488|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against mouse IgM, mouse IgA, pooled human sera, purified human paraproteins and mouse isotypes IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 prior to conjugation|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||1-10 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-mouse IgG1 whole antibodies have been cross-adsorbed against mouse IgM, mouse IgA, pooled human sera, purified human paraproteins, and mouse isotypes IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 prior to conjugation. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 488 dye is a bright, green-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 488 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 488 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 488 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
The long non-coding RNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1_2 induces paraspeckle formation in the motor neuron during the early phase of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
A-21121 was used in immunocytochemistry to analyze paraspeckle formation in the motor neuron during the early phase of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis induced by the long non-coding RNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1_2
|Nishimoto Y,Nakagawa S,Hirose T,Okano HJ,Takao M,Shibata S,Suyama S,Kuwako K,Imai T,Murayama S,Suzuki N,Okano H||Molecular brain (6:null)||2013|
Ewing's sarcoma cells with CD57-associated increase of tumorigenicity and with neural crest-like differentiation capacity.
A-21121 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate the heterogeneity and origin of Ewing family of tumors
|Wahl J,Bogatyreva L,Boukamp P,Rojewski M,van Valen F,Fiedler J,Hipp N,Debatin KM,Beltinger C||International journal of cancer (127:1295)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Combined genomic and phenotype screening reveals secretory factor SPINK1 as an invasion and survival factor associated with patient prognosis in breast cancer.||Soon WW,Miller LD,Black MA,Dalmasso C,Chan XB,Pang B,Ong CW,Salto-Tellez M,Desai KV,Liu ET||EMBO molecular medicine (3:451)||2011|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Restriction of receptor movement alters cellular response: physical force sensing by EphA2.||Salaita K,Nair PM,Petit RS,Neve RM,Das D,Gray JW,Groves JT||Science (New York, N.Y.) (327:1380)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Multiple immunofluorescence labelling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.||Robertson D,Savage K,Reis-Filho JS,Isacke CM||BMC cell biology (9:null)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
JHDM1B/FBXL10 is a nucleolar protein that represses transcription of ribosomal RNA genes.
A-21121 was used in immunoprecipitation to characterize human JHDM1B.
|Frescas D,Guardavaccaro D,Bassermann F,Koyama-Nasu R,Pagano M||Nature (450:309)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Three-dimensional distribution of ryanodine receptor clusters in cardiac myocytes.||Chen-Izu Y,McCulle SL,Ward CW,Soeller C,Allen BM,Rabang C,Cannell MB,Balke CW,Izu LT||Biophysical journal (91:1)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Motor axon guidance of the mammalian trochlear and phrenic nerves: dependence on the netrin receptor Unc5c and modifier loci.||Burgess RW,Jucius TJ,Ackerman SL||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (26:5756)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Cullin 4A-mediated proteolysis of DDB2 protein at DNA damage sites regulates in vivo lesion recognition by XPC.||El-Mahdy MA,Zhu Q,Wang QE,Wani G,Praetorius-Ibba M,Wani AA||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:13404)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Intracellular phospho-protein staining techniques for flow cytometry: monitoring single cell signaling events.||Krutzik PO,Nolan GP||Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (55:61)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A novel role for p120 catenin in E-cadherin function.||Ireton RC,Davis MA,van Hengel J,Mariner DJ,Barnes K,Thoreson MA,Anastasiadis PZ,Matrisian L,Bundy LM,Sealy L,Gilbert B,van Roy F,Reynolds AB||The Journal of cell biology (159:465)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||An immunocytochemical approach to detection of mitochondrial disorders.||Hanson BJ,Capaldi RA,Marusich MF,Sherwood SW||The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society (50:1281)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin and GPIb-V-IX complex identify distinct stages in the maturation of CD34(+) cord blood cells to megakaryocytes.||Lepage A,Leboeuf M,Cazenave JP,de la Salle C,Lanza F,Uzan G||Blood (96:4169)||2000|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Gradients in the liver's extracellular matrix chemistry from periportal to pericentral zones: influence on human hepatic progenitors.
A-21121 was used in immunohistochemistry to identify key matrix components required for ex vivo maintenance of human hepatic progenitors
|McClelland R,Wauthier E,Uronis J,Reid L||Tissue engineering. Part A (14:59)||2008|