Store at -20oC. We recommend a brief centrifugation before opening to settle vial contents. Then, apportion into working aliquots and store at -20oC. For shipment or short-term storage (up to one week), 2-8oC is sufficient.
Positive controls used: HeLa cells stimulated with interferon gamma (IFN-g) and calyculin.
PKR is a 68 kDa protein and an IFN-induced serine/threonine protein kinase consisting of two N-terminal RNA-binding regulatory domains and a functional C-terminal serine/threonine protein kinase domain. Activated by dsRNA produced during viral infections, PKR plays a key role in IFN induced-innate antiviral response, virus-induced apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation. Upon activation, PKR gets autophosphorylated and catalyzes the phosphorylation of elF2 alpha subunit, which leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis. PKR induces apoptosis by up-regulating Fas expression and mediates FADD/Caspase-8 death signaling pathway. Upon viral infection, it functions as a dual protein, sequentially activating both cell survival and cell death pathways using kinase independent and dependent strategies. PRKR regulates multiple pathways which include NF-kappaB activation, p53, p38, and PDGF signaling pathway. PKR has been implicated in tumor suppression and malignancy. To evade the antiviral effects of PKR, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms, such as the inhibition of PKR by the non-structural protein (NS1) of the influenza virus. More recently, PKR has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Huntington, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
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Protein Aliases: double stranded RNA activated protein kinase; dsRNA-activated kinase; EC 188.8.131.52; eIF-2 alpha; eIF-2A protein kinase 2; eIF2a Kinase; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 2; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2; IFN- type I-induced and dsRNA-activated kinase; IFN-induced and double-stranded RNA-activated kinase; Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase; interferon-inducible elF2alpha kinase; Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase; MGC126524; OTTHUMP00000201320; P1/eIF-2A protein kinase; p68 kinase; PKR; protein kinase R; Protein kinase RNA-activated; protein kinase, interferon inducible double stranded RNA dependent; protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent; protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 83; Serine/threonine-protein kinase TIK; T-cell viral integration site; Tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2
Gene Aliases: 2310047A08Rik; 4732414G15Rik; AI467567; AI747578; EIF2AK1; EIF2AK2; PKR; PPP1R83; PRKR; Tik