PTEN was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The PTEN gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. PTEN negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway. PTEN plays a role as a key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Also, PTEN may be a negative regulator of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue. The nuclear monoubiquitinated form possesses greater apoptotic potential, whereas the cytoplasmic nonubiquitinated form of PTEN induces less tumor suppressive ability.
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Protein Aliases: mitochondrial phosphatase and tensin protein alpha; mitochondrial PTENalpha; MMAC1 phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10; Mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1; Phosphatase and tensin homolog; phosphatase and tensin-like protein; phosphatidylinositol 3; Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN; phosphatidylinositol-3; phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN; pten tumor suppressor
Gene Aliases: 10q23del; 2310035O07Rik; A130070J02Rik; AI463227; B430203M17Rik; BZS; CWS1; DEC; GLM2; MHAM; MMAC1; PTEN; PTEN1; TEP1
Molecular Function: protein phosphatase