Description: The monoclonal antibody 1D11.16.8 recognizes human, mouse, rat, hamster, canine and non-human primate Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) beta 1, 2 and 3. TGF beta is a pleiotropic cytokine that exists as five isoforms (TGF beta 1-5) that share 70-80% homology with each other. However, these isoforms are not homologous to TGF alpha. TGF beta 1 is highly conserved between human, murine, simian, bovine, porcine, and chicken proteins. TGF beta 1 is the most abundant isoform and is ubiquitously expressed by a variety of cell types, including platelets, macrophages, lymphocytes, endothelial cells, chondrocytes, and leukemic cells. However, the other isoforms exhibit a more restricted expression pattern.
TGF beta 1 is synthesized as a long precursor polypeptide, which is cleaved to yield the mature protein and the Latency Associated Peptide (LAP). LAP and mature TGF beta 1 remain non-covalently associated during secretion, forming homodimers known as the Small Latent Complex (SLC). Secretion can be induced by steroids, retinoids, EGF, NGF, vitamin D3, and IL-1. The bioactivity of mature TGF beta 1 is dependent on its release from LAP by conformational changes and proteolytic processing. Its activities include inhibition of cell growth in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, lymphoid cells, and other hematopoietic cell types. TGF beta 1 also inhibits the proliferation of T and NK cells, downregulates the activities of activated macrophages, and blocks the anti-tumor activity of IL-2 - bearing lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Recently, TGF beta 1 has been found to play a critical role in the development of regulatory T cells and act as a costimulatory factor for expression of Foxp3. Dendritic cells exposed to tumors have been reported to secrete TGF beta 1 and stimulate the differntiation of CD4+CD25+ Treg cell from peripheral CD4+CD25- progeny. TGF beta 1-induced regulatory T cells have been termed iTregs.
Applications Reported: This 1D11.16.8 antibody has been reported for use in neutralization assays both in vivo and in vitro and immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections.
Endotoxin: Less than 0.001 ng/ug antibody as determined by the LAL assay.
Storage and handling: Use in a sterile environment.
Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered.
Purity: Greater than 90%, as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Level: Less than 0.001 ng/µg antibody, as determined by LAL assay.
Aggregation: Less than 10%, as determined by HPLC.
TGF beta-1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines, found almost ubiquitously in tissues. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-b is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-b1 requires the binding of aV integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-b binding proteins. Latent forms are complexes of TGF-beta, an aminoterminal portion of the TGF-beta precursor, designated TGF-LAP (TGF-latency associated peptide), and a specific binding protein, known as LTBP.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: CED; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1; regulatory protein; TGF-beta 1; TGF-beta-1; TGFB; TGFbeta; transforming growth factor beta 1; Transforming growth factor beta-1; Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein; transforming growth factor beta1; transforming growth factor, beta 1; transforming growth factor, beta 1 (Camurati-Engelmann disease); transforming growth factor, beta-1; transforming growth factor-beta 1
Gene Aliases: CED; DPD1; LAP; TGF-beta; TGF-beta1; TGFB; Tgfb-1; TGFB1; TGFbeta; TGFbeta1