Description: The MMp35A1.6 (A1.6) antibody reacts with the p35 subunit of mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12) and inhibits IL-12 bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) but not the bioactivity of IL-35. p35 is a component of two of the four members of the interleukin (IL)-12 family of cytokines. The IL-12 family members are heterodimeric cytokines composed of an alpha-chain, such as p35, and a beta-chain, such as p40. The alpha-chain proteins are thought to be the limiting factors for secretion of IL-12 family member cytokines, as expression of the alpha-chain is more restricted than that of the beta-chain proteins, and the two subunits may need to be co-expressed in order for cytokine secretion to occur. IL-12 family members are secreted primarily by antigen-presenting cells in response to various TLR agonists and other inflammatory stimuli. The exact types of stimuli present and kinetics of stimulation determine the balance of IL-12 family member production.
The p35 protein was first identified as part of the IL-12 cytokine, which is also known as IL-12p70. Secretion is induced by IFN gamma and agonists of TLR3, 4, or 7 and is inhibited by Th2 cytokines. IL-12 is essential for the differentiation and maintenance of Th1 cells. The other subunit, p40, is expressed in much higher quantities than p35, and may be secreted independently as a monomer or homodimer. Free p40 may act as an antagonist of IL-12 function.
More recently, p35 was also found to dimerize with EBI3 (Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3) to form IL-35. The biology of IL-35 is incompletely understood, and it is believed to be unique among the IL-12 family members in its expression and function. It is produced by regulatory T cells, and appears to have immunoregulatory functions. IL-35 has been found to suppress the proliferation and function of effector T cells, and has also been observed to induce a regulatory phenotype on naive CD4+ cells cultured in its presence.
Applications Reported: This MMp35A1.6 monoclonal antibody has been reported for use in functional assays.
Applications Tested: This MMp35A1.6 antibody at less than or equal to 20 µg/mL has been found to inhibit by 50% the biological effects of 1 ng/mL Mouse IL-12 p70 Recombinant Protein (14-8121), as measured by neutralization of mouse IFN gamma induction in normal mouse splenocytes. Detailed information and protocols about cytokine bioassays and in vitro cytokine neutralization using antibodies can be found in the BestProtocols® section.
Endotoxin: Less than 0.001 ng/ug antibody as determined by the LAL assay.
Storage and handling: Use in a sterile environment.
Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered.
Purity: Greater than 90%, as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Level: Less than 0.001 ng/µg antibody, as determined by LAL assay.
Aggregation: Less than 10%, as determined by HPLC.
Interleukin 12A is a novel signaling cytokine belonging to the Interleukin-6 protein superfamily. Interleukin-12 alpha chain precursor (IL-12A) is a 35-kD subunit of disulfide-linked heterodimer of cytokine IL-12 and has a broad array of biological activities. Reports suggest that IL-12A can act as a growth factor for activated T and NK cells and enhance the lytic activity of NK/lymphokine-activated Killer cells. IL-12A stimulates the production of IFN-gamma by resting PBMC as well as T-cell-independent induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma, and helps in the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. It is also involved in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat4 protein. The signaling process of IL-12A in innate immunity requires nitric oxide synthase 2A. Along with EBI3, IL-12A forms a novel heterodimeric cytokine, designated as interleukin-35 (IL-35), that may be specifically produced by T reg cells and is required for maximal suppressive activity.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.