Description: The eBioTB2F antibody reacts with Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta), a pleiotropic cytokine, exists in five isoforms, known as TGF-beta1-5. Homologies between isoforms range from 70-80% but no homology exists to TGF-alpha. TGF-beta1 is ubiquitous and the most abundant form found in lymphoid organs, while other isoforms are expressed in a more restricted distribution. The biologically active state of all isoforms are disulfide-linked homodimers. The heat- and acid- stable monomeric subunits have a length of 112 amino acids. The isoforms of TGF-beta arise by proteolytic cleavage of longer precursors; the isoforms are derived from the carboxyterminal ends of these precursors. Isoforms isolated from different species are evolutionarily closely conserved and have sequence identities on the order of 98%. Mature human, porcine, simian, chicken and bovine TGF-beta1 are identical and differ from mouse TGF-beta1 in a single amino acid. TGF-beta1 is produced in very high levels by platelets. Other cellular sources of TGF-beta1 include macrophages, lymphocytes, endothelial cells, chondrocytes, and leukemic cells. TGF-beta1 secretion can be induced by steroids, retinoids, EGF, NGF, vitamin D3, and IL-1. Activities of TGF-beta1 include inhibition of cell growth for inhibitor for normal and transformed epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, and lymphoid cells and other hematopoietic cell types. TGF-beta1 inhibits the proliferation of T cells and NK cells and downregulates the activities of activated macrophages. TGF-beta1 blocks the anti-tumor activity of IL-2 - bearing lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Recently, TGF-beta1 has been found to have a critical role in the development of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells exposed to tumors have been reported to secrete TGF-beta1 and stimulate expansion of natural T reg cells. Moreover, TGF-beta1 has been shown to act as a costimulatory factor for expression of Foxp3, leading to the differentiation of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells from peripheral CD4+CD25- progeny. TGF-beta-induced regulatory T cells have been termed Ti-Treg.
Applications Reported: This eBioTB2F antibody has been reported for use in ELISA.
Applications Tested: The eBioTB2F antibody has been tested as the capture antibody in a sandwich ELISA for analysis of human and mouse TGF-beta in combination with the detection eBio16TFB (cat. 13-9923) antibody for detection and recombinant human TGF-beta (cat. 14-8348) as the standard. A suitable range of concentrations of this antibody for ELISA capture is 6-10 µg/mL. A standard curve consisting of doubling dilutions of the recombinant standard over the range of 8000 pg/mL - 60 pg/mL should be included in each ELISA plate.
This antibody recognizes the mature/active form of TGF beta 1 without association with Latency Associated Peptide (LAP). Most samples will require acid-treatment and neutralization to remove LAP from TGF beta 1 prior to evaluation in this assay. Samples should be tested in the assay immediately after acid treatment and neutralization. It is also possible that some serum and plasma samples may contain low levels of immunoreactive TGF beta 1 that has disassociated from LAP. Naturally occuring, free TGF beta 1 may be measurable by evaluating samples without acid treatment.
Purity: Greater than 90%, as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Aggregation: Less than 10%, as determined by HPLC.
Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered.
TGF beta-1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines, found almost ubiquitously in tissues. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-b is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-b1 requires the binding of aV integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-b binding proteins. Latent forms are complexes of TGF-beta, an aminoterminal portion of the TGF-beta precursor, designated TGF-LAP (TGF-latency associated peptide), and a specific binding protein, known as LTBP.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: CED; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1; TGF-beta-1; TGFB; TGFbeta; Transforming growth factor beta-1; Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein
Gene Aliases: CED; DPD1; LAP; TGFB; TGFB1; TGFbeta
UniProt ID: (Human) P01137
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 7040