Shop All Cellular Structure Probes

CellLight™ Talin-RFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Talin-RFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label talin with red fluorescent protein (RFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning.

Want to label other cell structures? Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling tools

This ready-to-use construct is transduced/transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses RFP fused to the c terminus of human talin. You can observe talin-RFP behavior in live cells to study the focal adhesion of integrins and their interaction with actin filaments using multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes.

Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexed imaging using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology is:
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Talin-RFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of Human c terminus of talin and TagRFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular talin-RFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

eBioscience™ Phalloidin eFluor™ 520 (Invitrogen™)

Phalloidin is a peptide toxin isolated from the Amanita phalloides mushroom. Phalloidin selectively binds F-actin and functions to stablilize actin polymers by inhibiting the dissociation of actin monomers from the filament ends. Because F-actin polymers compose the cytoskeleton of almost all eukaryotic cells, phalloidin conjugates can be useful probes for visualizing the structure of live or fixed cells using microscopy. Phalloidin eFluor™ 520 can be used to label cells of multiple species. Its exitation and emission is similar to Alexa Fluor 488 and FITC.

Phalloidin eFluor™ 520 is supplied as a frozen liquid. To prepare the 1000X stock solution, thaw the vial, add 30 uL high-quality anhydrous DMSO, mix and briefly spin down. The resulting solution (phalloidin DMSO stock) should be aliquoted, protected from light and moisture, and stored at -20°C. To prepare a 1X working solution of phalloidin conjugate, add 1 uL of 1000X phalloidin DMSO stock solution to 1 mL of PBS containing 1% BSA.

Emit
535 nm

Excite
475 nm

Reported Application
Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemical Staining, Cell Labeling, Microscopy

MitoProbe™ DiIC1(5) Assay Kit - For Flow Cytometry - 100 Assays (Invitrogen™)

The MitoProbe™ DiIC1(5) Assay Kit provides solutions of the membrane-potential-sensitive cyanine dye DiIC1(5), and a mitochondrial membrane-potential disrupter, CCCP, for the study of mitochondrial membrane potential. DiIC1(5) penetrates the cytosol of eukaryotic cells and accumulates primarily in mitochondria with active membrane potentials, producing bright, far-red fluorescence. DiIC1(5) staining intensity decreases with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.

View a selection guide for all apoptosis assays for flow cytometry.

CellLight™ Tubulin-GFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Tubulin-GFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label tubulin with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning.

Want to label other cell structures? Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling tools

This ready-to-use construct is transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses GFP fused to human tubulin. You can observe tubulin-GFP behavior in live cells with almost no cytotoxicity and label with multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes.

Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexed imaging using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology is:
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Tubulin-GFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of human tubulin and emGFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular tubulin-GFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

Alexa Fluor™ Plus 405 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Alexa Fluor Plus 405 Phalloidin is a high-affinity filamentous actin (F-actin) probe (phalloidin) conjugated to our bright, photostable, violet-fluorescent Alexa Fluor 405 dye.

• Selectively stains F-actin
• Outstanding fluorescence performance
• Excitation/emission: 405/450 nm. Compatible with standard DAPI filter set or 405/violet excitation laser.
• Superior to antibody staining
• Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get superior results in your actin staining studies
Phalloidin is a bi-cyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides ""death cap"" mushroom and commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has several advantages over antibodies for actin labeling, including virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species of plants and animals, and low non-specific binding. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity, while Alexa Fluor Plus 405 provides violet fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability.

Use in multiple applications
Alexa Fluor Plus 405 Phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Its staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses, including fluorescent proteins, Qdot nanocrystals, and other Alexa Fluor conjugates including secondary antibodies.

Alexa Fluor™ 647 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Alexa Fluor® 647 phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to our bright, photostable, far-red fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 647 dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 650/668 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Alexa Fluor® 647 provides far-red fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Alexa Fluor® 647 phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Alexa Fluor® 647 phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Alexa Fluor® 647 phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and other Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
See the full line of Alexa Fluor® Dye products.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

CellLight™ Lysosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Lysosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy method for the labeling of lysosomes with Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning. This ready-to-use construct is transduced/transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses RFP fused to Lamp1 (lysosomal associated membrane protein 1). You can observe lysosomes-RFP behavior in live cells using a fluorescent imaging system and standard TRITC/RFP filter set. Study staining of lysosomes, which does not depend upon organelle pH or some other parameter, that can be different from one cell type to other. In addition, you can co-transduce/transfect more than one CellLight® reagent and label live cells with multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes. Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexing with antibodies using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose

Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Lysosomes-RFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of Lamp1 (lysosomal associated membrane protein 1) and TagRFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular lysosomes-RFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit (Invitrogen™)

The MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit is a quick and reliable assay used to detect changes in mitochondria by flow cytometry.

View a selection guide for all apoptosis assays for flow cytometry.

Selective to mitochondrial changes
The membrane-permeant JC-1 dye is widely used in apoptosis studies to monitor mitochondrial health. JC-1 dye exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria, indicated by a fluorescence emission shift from green (~529 nm) to red (~590 nm). Consequently, mitochondrial depolarization is indicated by a decrease in the red/green fluorescence intensity ratio. The potential-sensitive color shift is due to concentration-dependent formation of red fluorescent J-aggregates.

Unlike other mitochondrial stains that are affected by plasma membrane potential, the ratio of green to red fluorescence of JC-1 depends only on the membrane potential and not other factors such as mitochondrial size, shape, and density, which may influence single-component fluorescence signals. Use of fluorescence ratio detection allows researchers to make comparative measurements of membrane potential and determine the percentage of mitochondria within a population that respond to an applied stimulus.

Indicator of early apoptosis
A distinctive feature of the early stages of programmed cell death is the disruption of active mitochondria. This mitochondrial disruption includes changes in the membrane potential and alterations to the oxidation-reduction potential of the mitochondria. Changes in the membrane potential are presumed to be due to the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), allowing passage of ions and small molecules. The resulting equilibration of ions leads in turn to the decoupling of the respiratory chain and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol.

Simple, streamlined protocol
One of the biggest challenges to working with dual-emitting dyes like JC-1 is compensation. The MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit provides a mitochondrial membrane-potential disrupter, CCCP, in order to produce compensation controls leading to a correctly compensated green-to-red fluorescence ratio. The stain protocol is simple and straightforward: incubate the cells with JC-1 dye and then analyze the fluorescent signal in the FITC and PE channels of of a 488 nm laser.

CellLight™ Tubulin-RFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Tubulin-RFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label tubulin with red fluorescent protein (RFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning.

Want to label other cell structures? Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling tools

This ready-to-use construct is transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses RFP fused to human tubulin. You can observe tubulin-RFP behavior in live cells with almost no cytotoxicity and label with multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes.

Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexed imaging using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology is:
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Tubulin-RFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of human tubulin and TagRFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular tubulin-RFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

Alexa Fluor™ 532 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Alexa Fluor® 532 phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to our bright, photostable, yellow fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 532 dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 531/554 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Alexa Fluor® 532 provides yellow fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Alexa Fluor®532 phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Alexa Fluor® 532 phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Alexa Fluor® 532 phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and other Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
See the full line of Alexa Fluor® Dye products.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

Texas Red™-X Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Texas Red®-X phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to our bright, photostable, red fluorescent Texas Red®-X dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 591/608 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Texas Red®-X provides red fluorescence with superior brightness. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Texas Red®-X phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Texas Red®-X phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Texas Red®-X phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

CellLight™ Mitochondria-RFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Mitochondria-RFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy method for the labeling of mitochondria with Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning. This ready-to-use construct is transduced/transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses RFP fused to the Leader sequence of E1 alpha pyruvate dehydrogenase. You can observe mitochondria-RFP behavior in live cells using a fluorescent imaging system and standard TRITC/RFP filter set. Study staining of mitochondria, which does not depend upon mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, you can co-transduce/transfect more than one CellLight® reagent and label live cells with multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes. Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexing with antibodies using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose

Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Mitochondria-RFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of the Leader sequence of E1 alpha pyruvate dehydrogenase and TagRFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular mitochondria-RFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

CellLight™ Actin-GFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Actin-GFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label actin with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning.

Want to label other cell structures? Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling tools

This ready-to-use construct is transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology and expresses GFP fused to human actin with almost no cytotoxic effects. Study the dynamic action of actin filaments in live cells and multiplex with other fluorescent proteins or organic dyes.

Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexed imaging using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology is:
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Actin-GFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of human actin and emGFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular actin-GFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

MitoProbe™ Transition Pore Assay Kit, for flow cytometry (Invitrogen™)

The MitoProbe™ Transition Pore Assay Kit provides a proven method (Petronilli V. et al. 1989, 1999) of measuring mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The kit includes a dye and a quencher that are easily loaded into cells. In healthy cells, the dye, but not the quencher, enters mitochondria. The mitochondria remain brightly fluorescent until mitochondrial pore activation permits quenching of the fluorescence.

View a selection guide for all apoptosis assays for flow cytometry.

CellLight™ Null (control), BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Null Control is intended as a negative transduction control for our CellLight® fluorescent protein live cell staining reagents. The CellLight® Null Control contains no mammalian promoter and no transgene. CellLight® reagents combine the utility and selectivity of fluorescent proteins with the transduction efficiency of BacMam technology, enabling unambiguous staining of organelles, cellular structures, and processes in live mammalian cells. They are provided in a ready-to-use format—simply add, incubate, and image—with highly efficient expression in cell lines, primary cells, stem cells, and neurons.

CellLight® Null Control is:

• Highly Efficient:
>90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
• Fast and Convenient: Simply add CellLight® Null Control reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and evaluate how well your cells tolerate BacMam transduction
• Safe: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells, lack of observable cytopathic effect, and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

CellLight® Reagents Principle
Other CellLight® reagents are fusion constructs of signal peptides or cell structure proteins with premiere emGFP, TagRFP or CFP for accurate and specific targeting to sub-cellular compartments and structures. A variety of targets, including cytoskeleton, mitochondria, and secretory compartments, are available for convenient multiplexing, co-localization studies, and imaging of dynamic cellular processes where high spatial and temporal resolution is required. The CellLight® reagents tolerate fixation with formaldehyde and are therefore compatible with fixed-cell analysis.

BacMam Technology
The BacMam technology is based on an insect virus (baculovirus) for efficient transduction and transient expression in mammalian cells. The baculovirus has been modified to include an expression cassette containing the CellLight® fusion construct.

BacMam 2.0 incorporates elements that help greatly enhance transduction efficiency and expression levels: a pseudotyped capsid protein for more efficient cell entry, an enhanced CMV promoter, and the Woodchuck hepatitis post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE).

Baculoviruses do not replicate in mammalian cells and thus have an excellent safety profile and lack cytopathic effects on cells.

Work Flow Convenience
Unlike expression vectors, BacMam reagents enable titratable and reproducible transient protein expression. There is no need for harsh transfection methods or tedious cloning. To achieve highly efficient expression even in sensitive cells, such as stem cells, neurons, and primary cells, just add CellLight® reagents to cells in complete medium, incubate, and image the next day. Alternatively, mix CellLight® reagent and cells at the time of plating.

Co-transduction efficiencies are high allowing multiple CellLight® reagents to be readily used in the same experiment when multiple structures or pathways need to be labeled. CellLight® reagents also tolerate fixation with formaldehyde and are thus compatible with antibody-based fixed-cell analysis.

Typically, transiently transduced cells express fusion protein for about five days, though in slowly dividing cells, such as some primary cell types, expression has been demonstrated for up to two weeks; in terminally differentiated neurons we have recorded images more than three weeks after transduction.