After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified.
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Protein Aliases: Cpeptide; Insulin; Insulin A chain; Insulin B chain; preproinsulin; proinsulin
Gene Aliases: IDDM; IDDM1; IDDM2; ILPR; INS; IRDN; MODY10
UniProt ID: (Human) P01308
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 3630
Molecular Function: growth factor