Immunofluorescence analysis of Donkey anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 594 was performed using HeLa cells stained with alpha Tubulin (23610501) Mouse Monoclonal Primary Antibody (A11126). The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, blocked with 1% BSA for 1 hour and labeled with Mouse primary antibody (1:250 dilution) for 3 hours at room temperature. Donkey anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 594 (A21203) was used at a concentration of 4 µg/ml in phosphate buffered saline containing 0.2 % BSA for 45 minutes at room temperature, for detection of alpha Tubulin in the cytoplasm (Panel a: red). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with DAPI in SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant (S36938). F-actin was stained with Alexa Fluor® 488 Phalloidin (A12379, 1:300) (Panel c: green). Panel d represents the composite image. No nonspecific staining was observed with the secondary antibody alone (panel f), or with an isotype control (panel e). The images were captured at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Donkey / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 594|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1:500|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||4 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||4 µg/ml|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||1-10 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
These donkey anti-mouse IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity-purified and show minimum cross-reactivity to bovine, chicken, goat, guinea pig, hamster, horse, human, rabbit, rat, and sheep serum proteins. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 594 dye is a bright, red-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 594 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 594 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 594 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Immunosuppression via Loss of IL2r¿ Enhances Long-Term Functional Integration of hESC-Derived Photoreceptors in the Mouse Retina.
A-21203 was used in immunohistochemistry to evaluate host immune-mediated cell rejection in a retinal transplantation model
|Zhu J,Cifuentes H,Reynolds J,Lamba DA||Cell stem cell (20:374)||2017|
High-performance probes for light and electron microscopy.
A-21203 was used in immunohistochemistry to develop and characterize 'spaghetti monster' fluorescent proteins
|Viswanathan S,Williams ME,Bloss EB,Stasevich TJ,Speer CM,Nern A,Pfeiffer BD,Hooks BM,Li WP,English BP,Tian T,Henry GL,Macklin JJ,Patel R,Gerfen CR,Zhuang X,Wang Y,Rubin GM,Looger LL||Nature methods (12:568)||2015|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||MicroRNA-18a improves human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cell function.||Ferreira R,Santos T,Amar A,Tahara SM,Chen TC,Giannotta SL,Hofman FM||Stroke (45:293)||2014|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Cell surface F1/FO ATP synthase contributes to interstitial flow-mediated development of the acidic microenvironment in tumor tissues.||Kawai Y,Kaidoh M,Yokoyama Y,Ohhashi T||American journal of physiology. Cell physiology (305:C1139)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A novel mechanism of keratin cytoskeleton organization through casein kinase I¿ and FAM83H in colorectal cancer.||Kuga T,Kume H,Kawasaki N,Sato M,Adachi J,Shiromizu T,Hoshino I,Nishimori T,Matsubara H,Tomonaga T||Journal of cell science (126:4721)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury.||Lam TI,Bingham D,Chang TJ,Lee CC,Shi J,Wang D,Massa S,Swanson RA,Liu J||Neurorehabilitation and neural repair (27:889)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces rapid release of angiopoietin-2 from endothelial cells.||Ye FC,Zhou FC,Nithianantham S,Chandran B,Yu XL,Weinberg A,Gao SJ||Journal of virology (87:6326)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||METT-10, a putative methyltransferase, inhibits germ cell proliferative fate in Caenorhabditis elegans.||Dorsett M,Westlund B,Schedl T||Genetics (183:233)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||EdU, a new thymidine analogue for labelling proliferating cells in the nervous system.||Chehrehasa F,Meedeniya AC,Dwyer P,Abrahamsen G,Mackay-Sim A||Journal of neuroscience methods (177:122)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Conserved SOL-1 proteins regulate ionotropic glutamate receptor desensitization.||Walker CS,Francis MM,Brockie PJ,Madsen DM,Zheng Y,Maricq AV||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:10787)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Pharmacological promotion of inclusion formation: a therapeutic approach for Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.||Bodner RA,Outeiro TF,Altmann S,Maxwell MM,Cho SH,Hyman BT,McLean PJ,Young AB,Housman DE,Kazantsev AG||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:4246)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Regulation of sensory neuron-specific acid-sensing ion channel 3 by the adaptor protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1.||Deval E,Friend V,Thirant C,Salinas M,Jodar M,Lazdunski M,Lingueglia E||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:1796)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos.||Kosman D,Mizutani CM,Lemons D,Cox WG,McGinnis W,Bier E||Science (New York, N.Y.) (305:null)||2004|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Genetic evidence that relative synaptic efficacy biases the outcome of synaptic competition.||Buffelli M,Burgess RW,Feng G,Lobe CG,Lichtman JW,Sanes JR||Nature (424:430)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Expression of catalase mRNA and protein in adult rat brain: detection by nonradioactive in situ hybridization with signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition (ISH-CARD) and immunohistochemistry (IHC)/immunofluorescence (IF).||Schad A,Fahimi HD,Völkl A,Baumgart E||The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society (51:751)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A novel specific role for I kappa B kinase complex-associated protein in cytosolic stress signaling.||Holmberg C,Katz S,Lerdrup M,Herdegen T,Jäättelä M,Aronheim A,Kallunki T||The Journal of biological chemistry (277:31918)||2002|
Hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin 2 interacts with the protein disulfide- isomerase ERp46.
A-21203 was used in immunocytochemistry to identify ERp46 as a binding partner of Prx2 in H2O2-treated cells
|Pace PE,Peskin AV,Han MH,Hampton MB,Winterbourn CC||The Biochemical journal (453:475)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of ferritin-based reporter visualizes native neuroblast migration.
A-21203 was used in immunocytochemistry to develop a method to non-invasively examine native or transplanted stem cell migration in live animals
|Iordanova B,Ahrens ET||NeuroImage (59:1004)||2012|