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Nitrated tyrosine residues in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells detected with rabbit anti-nitrotyrosine antibody. Fixed and permeabilized bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were treated with either degraded peroxynitrite (top panel) or 100 µM peroxynitrite (bottom panel) for five minutes at room temperature to induce protein nitration. Nitrated tyrosine residues were detected with our rabbit anti-nitrotyrosine polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. A21285) and visualized with the green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti–rabbit IgG antibody (Cat. No. A11008). Nuclei were counterstained with blue-fluorescent DAPI (Cat. No. D1306, D3571, D21490).
|Tested species reactivity||Chemical|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.2|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:200-1:2000|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
Nitrotyrosine is a relatively stable product formed from various reaction pathways. Perhaps most notable is the reaction of peroxynitrite (formed from Superoxide and nitric oxide radicals) with tyrosine. As a strong oxidant and nitrating agent, peroxynitrite mediates tyrosine nitration reactions on proteins resulting in inactivation of certain housekeeping enzymes (e. g. alpha1-antiproteinase) as well as endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and SOD. Nitrotyrosine has been identified as an indicator of cell damage and inflammation, as well as of the production of NO. It is believed that measuring the concentration of nitrotyrosine will serve as a marker for damage caused by NO in the cell. Nitrotyrosine has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, infectious and degenerative human diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), asthma, atherosclerosis and a variety of conditions precipitated by endothelial injury.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Homocysteine disrupts outgrowth of microvascular endothelium by an iNOS-dependent mechanism.
A-21285 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if Hcy impairs angiogenic outgrowth through an iNOS-dependent mechanism.
|Mayo JN,Chen CH,Liao FF,Bearden SE||Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) (21:541)||2014|
S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine attenuates liver fibrosis in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
A-21285 was used in immunohistochemistry to test the antifibrotic activity of S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
|Mazo DF,de Oliveira MG,Pereira IV,Cogliati B,Stefano JT,de Souza GF,Rabelo F,Lima FR,Ferreira Alves VA,Carrilho FJ,de Oliveira CP||Drug design, development and therapy (7:553)||2013|
Hypothermic renal perfusion during aortic surgery reduces the presence of lipocalin-2 and preserves renal extraction of dimethylarginines in rats.
A-21285 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if the protective effect of cold perfusion is associated with renal extraction of dimethylarginines.
|Yeung KK,De Gouyon Matignon C,Renwarin L,Tjon-A-Fat MR,Teerlink T,van Leeuwen PA,Musters RJ,Wisselink W,Tangelder GJ||American journal of physiology. Renal physiology (301:F1231)||2011|
Infrarenal aortic-clamping after renal ischaemia aggravates acute renal failure.
A-21285 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if infrarenal aortic-clamping causes additional renal damage during repair of juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms.
|Yeung KK,Richir M,Hanrath P,Teerlink T,Kompanowska-Jezierska E,Musters RJ,van Leeuwen PA,Wisselink W,Tangelder GJ||European journal of clinical investigation (41:605)||2011|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Nitrative stress in cerebral endothelium is mediated by mGluR5 in hyperhomocysteinemia.
A-21285 was used in western blot to elucidate how extracellular homocysteine generates intracellular nitrotyrosinylation.
|Mayo JN,Beard RS,Price TO,Chen CH,Erickson MA,Ercal N,Banks WA,Bearden SE||Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (32:825)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Progenitor cell injury after irradiation to the developing brain can be modulated by mild hypothermia or hyperthermia.
A-21285 was used in western blot to investigate the effects of hypothermia and hyperthermia after irradiation in rats.
|Fukuda A,Fukuda H,Jönsson M,Swanpalmer J,Hertzman S,Lannering B,Björk-Eriksson T,Màrky I,Blomgren K||Journal of neurochemistry (94:1604)||2005|
Age-dependent sensitivity of the developing brain to irradiation is correlated with the number and vulnerability of progenitor cells.
A-21285 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to compare the outcome after irradiation treatment in the immature and juvenile rat brain.
|Fukuda A,Fukuda H,Swanpalmer J,Hertzman S,Lannering B,Marky I,Björk-Eriksson T,Blomgren K||Journal of neurochemistry (92:569)||2005|