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Immunofluorescence analysis of PPAR delta was done on 70% confluent log phase HeLa cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with PPAR delta Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (PA1823A) at 1ug/ml in 1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Superclonal™ Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate (Product # A27034) at a dilution of 1:2000 for 45 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant with DAPI (S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor® 555 Rhodamine Phalloidin (Product # R415, 1:300). Panel d is a merged image showing Nuclear localization. Panel e is a no primary antibody control. The images were captured at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Rat, Mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues M(1) E Q P Q E E T P E A R E E(14) C of mouse PPAR delta.|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography|
|Storage buffer||1mg/ml BSA|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||3-5 µg/10^6 cells|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-2 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-2 µg/ml|
|Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F))||1:200|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:250-1:750|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
PA1-823A detects peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) delta from rat, human and mouse cells. This antibody does not detect PPAR alpha or PPAR gamma.
PA1-823A has been successfully used in Western blot and immunohistochemical and immunofluoresence procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~49 kDa protein representing PPAR delta from NIH-3T3 cell lysate. Immunolocalization yeilds predominant nuclear staining.
The PA1-823A immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues M(1) E Q P Q E E T P E A R E E(14) C of mouse PPAR delta. This sequence is 86% conserved in human PPAR delta. PA1-823A immunizing peptide (Cat. # PEP-026) is available for use in neutralization and control experiments.
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family. PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors that bind peroxisome proliferators and control the size and number of peroxisomes produced by cells. PPARs mediate a variety of biological processes, and may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This protein is a potent inhibitor of ligand-induced transcription activity of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. It may function as an integrator of transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli , a tumor suppressor protein related to APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity is mediated by Il-6 and causes down-regulation of PPARs.
PA1-823A was used in western blot to study the effect of palmitate on cytokine and PPAR activity/expression in primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes
|Haffar T,Bérubé-Simard FA,Bousette N||Biochemical and biophysical research communications (459:54)||2015|
Neuregulins increase mitochondrial oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells.
PA1-823A was used in western blot to indicate the role of neuregulins in oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells
|Cantó C,Pich S,Paz JC,Sanches R,Martínez V,Orpinell M,Palacín M,Zorzano A,Gumà A||Diabetes (56:2185)||2007|
Increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene expression in the lungs of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PA1-823A was used in western blot to investigate PPAR delta expression in the lungs of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin
|Huang CJ,Liu IM,Cheng JT||Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics (20:69)||2006|
PPAR gamma activators induce growth arrest and process extension in B12 oligodendrocyte-like cells and terminal differentiation of cultured oligodendrocytes.
PA1-823A was used in western blot to investigate the effect of PPARgamma activation on the growth and morphology of B12 oligodendrocyte-like cells
|Roth AD,Leisewitz AV,Jung JE,Cassina P,Barbeito L,Inestrosa NC,Bronfman M||Journal of neuroscience research (72:425)||2003|
Inactivation of nuclear Wnt-beta-catenin signaling limits blastocyst competency for implantation.
PA1-823A was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the role of Wnt signaling for blastocyst competency for implantation
|Xie H,Tranguch S,Jia X,Zhang H,Das SK,Dey SK,Kuo CJ,Wang H||Development (Cambridge, England) (135:717)||2008|
Urine acidification has no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling or epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in rat urinary bladder urothelium.
PA1-823A was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the influence of urine acidification on signal pathways in urinary bladder urothelium
|Achanzar WE,Moyer CF,Marthaler LT,Gullo R,Chen SJ,French MH,Watson LM,Rhodes JW,Kozlosky JC,White MR,Foster WR,Burgun JJ,Car BD,Cosma GN,Dominick MA||Toxicology and applied pharmacology (223:246)||2007|
Genetic- or transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced changes in epidermal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta expression dictate wound repair kinetics.
PA1-823A was used in immunohistochemistry to demonstrate th effect of epidermal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta on wound repair kinetics.
|Tan NS,Michalik L,Desvergne B,Wahli W||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:18163)||2005|
nuclear hormone receptor 1; nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 2; Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Delta; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta; peroxisome proliferator activator receptor beta; peroxisome proliferator activator receptor, delta; peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor beta/delta variant 2; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; PPAR-beta; PPAR-delta; PPARdelta/beta
FAAR; NR1C2; NUC-1; NUC1; NUCI; NUCII; PPAR-beta; PPAR-delta; PPAR[b]; PPARB; Pparb/d; PPARD; PPARdelta